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Circuits from the Lab™ reference circuits are engineered and tested for quick and easy system integration to help solve today's analog, mixed-signal, and RF design challenges.
This circuit solves a problem often encountered in dc-coupled, single-supply systems when interfacing bipolar input signals to differential input ADCs. The technique ensures the proper common-mode voltage level at the input to the differential drive amplifier by controlling the input common-mode level using two level shifting resistors.
This circuit is a 10 MHz to 6 GHz wideband active mixer with a direct interface to a frequency synthesizer-based low phase noise local oscillator (LO). It offers an optimum solution that is attractive in wideband applications that require frequency conversion to higher or lower frequencies.
This circuit is a cost effective, low power, multi-channel data acquisition system that is compatible with standard industrial signal levels. The components are specifically selected to optimize settling time between samples, providing 18-bit performance at channel switching rates up to approximately 750 kHz.
The demand for Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries is high for use in both low power and high power applications, such as laptop computers, mobile phones, portable wireless terminals, as well as hybrid electric vehicles/all-electric vehicles (HEV/EV). Li-ion batteries therefore require accurate and reliable test systems. This test system is an accurate, cost effective, 8-channel battery testing system for single-cell, lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries with open circuit voltage (OCV) between 3.5 V and 4.4 V.
This circuit is a complete thermopile-based gas sensor using the nondispersive infrared (NDIR) principle. It is optimized for CO2 sensing, but can also accurately measure the concentration of a large number of gases by using thermopiles with different optical filters.
The demand for Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries is high for use in both low power and high power applications, such as laptop computers, mobile phones, portable wireless terminals, as well as hybrid electric vehicles/all-electric vehicles (HEV/EV), and those Li-ion batteries require an accurate and reliable test system. This circuit is an accurate, cost effective, 8-channel battery testing system for single-cell, lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries with open circuit voltage (OCV) between 3.5 V and 4.4 V.
This circuit provides two, 16-bit, fully isolated, universal analog input channels suitable for programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and distributed control system (DCS) modules. The circuit uses the AD7795 low noise, 16-bit, Σ-Δ ADC with on-chip in-amp and reference for the data conversion function. An on-chip in-amp and current sources provide a complete solution for RTD and thermocouple measurement.
This circuit accurately measures return loss in a wireless transmitter from 1 GHz to 28 GHz without any need for system calibration. The design is implemented on a single circuit board using a nonreflective RF switch; a microwave RF detector; and a 12-bit, precision analog-to-digital converter (ADC). A unique feature of the circuit is that it calculates return loss using a simple ratio of the digitized voltages from the RF detector, thereby eliminating the need for system calibration.
This circuit is a complete single-supply, low noise LED current source driver controlled by a 16-bit digital-to-analog converter (DAC). The system maintains ±1 LSB integral and differential nonlinearity and has a 0.1 Hz to 10 Hz noise of less than 45 nA p-p for a full-scale output current of 20 mA. The innovative output driver amplifier eliminates the crossover nonlinearity normally associated with most rail-to-rail input op amps that can be as high as 4 LSBs or 5 LSBs for a 16-bit system.
The circuit shown in Figure 1 is an ultralow power, multichannel data acquisition system that can be powered by a photovoltaic (PV) cell or thermoelectric generator (TEG). The circuit uses the industry’s lowest power, multichannel, 12-bit successive approximation analog-to-digital converter (SAR ADC), the AD7091R-5, along with an efficient energy harvesting circuit based on the ADP5090 boost regulator.
This circuit is a completely self-contained distance sensor that utilizes an ultrasonic transmitter and sensitive analog receiver in conjunction with a precision analog microcontroller to provide distance measurements. Unlike complicated PLL-based receivers, the sensor shown in Figure 1 uses a sensitive window comparator circuit, thereby minimizing real estate and cost.
This circuit provides a dual-channel, channel- to-channel isolated, thermocouple or RTD input suitable for programmable logic controllers (PLC) and distributed control systems (DCS). The highly integrated design utilizes a low power, 24-bit, Σ-Δ analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with a rich analog and digital feature set that requires no additional signal conditioning ICs.
This circuit is an integrated thermocouple measurement system based on the AD7124-4/AD7124-8 low power, low noise, 24-bit, Σ-Δ analog-to-digital converter (ADC), optimized for high precision measurement applications. Thermocouple measurements using this system show an overall system accuracy of ±1°C across a measurement temperature range of −50°C to +200°C. Typical noise-free code resolution of the system is approximately 15 bits.
This circuit is an integrated 3-wire resistance temperature detector (RTD) system based on the AD7124-4/ AD7124-8 low power, low noise, 24-bit Σ-Δ analog-to-digital converter (ADC) optimized for high precision measurement applications. With a two-point calibration and linearization, the overall 3-wire system accuracy is better than ±1°C across a temperature range of −50°C to +200°C. Typical noise free code resolution of the system is 17.9 bits for full power mode.
This circuit is an integrated 4-wire, resistance temperature detector (RTD) system based on the AD7124-4/ AD7124-8 low power, low noise, 24-bit Σ-Δ ADC optimized for high precision measurement applications. With a two-point calibration and linearization, the overall 4-wire system accuracy is better than ±1°C across a temperature range of −50°C to +200°C. Typical noise free code resolution of the system is 17.9 bits for full power mode.
Originally intended to carry local area network (LAN) traffic, unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cable, such as Category-5e (Cat-5e), has become an economical solution in many other signal transmission applications because of its respectable performance and low cost. But impairments such as nonlinear bandlimiting due to the skin effect, low frequency flat loss, and delay skew from unequal twist rates must be considered. This circuit solution overcomes these impairments by using the AD8122 triple receiver/equalizer to restore the high frequency content of the video signals over UTP while also providing flat gain.
A growing number of applications require data acquisition systems that must operate reliably at very high ambient temperature environments, such as downhole oil and gas drilling, avionics, and automotive. This circuit solution is a 16-bit, 600 kSPS successive approximation analog-to-digital converter (ADC) system using devices rated, characterized, and guaranteed at 175°C.
The circuit is a completely self-contained, microprocessor controlled, highly accurate conductivity measurement system ideal for measuring the ionic content of liquids, water quality analysis, industrial quality control, and chemical analysis. A carefully selected combination of precision signal conditioning components yields an accuracy of better than 0.3% over a conductivity range of 0.1 μS to 10 S (10 MΩ to 0.1 Ω) with no calibration requirements. The system accommodates 2- or 4-wire conductivity cells, and 2-, 3-, or 4-wire RTDs for added accuracy and flexibility.
This circuit provides a completely isolated connection between the popular USB bus and an RS-485 or RS-232 bus. Both signal and power isolation ensures a safe USB device interface to an industrial bus or debug port, allowing TIA/EIA-485/232 bus traffic monitoring and the convenience of sending and receiving commands to and from a PC that is not equipped with an RS-485 or RS-232 port. Isolation in this circuit increases system safety and robustness in industrial and instrumentation applications by providing protection against electrical line surges and breaks the ground connection between bus and digital pins, thereby removing possible ground loops within the system.
This complete linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) signal conditioning circuit can accurately measure linear position or displacement from a mechanical reference. Synchronous demodulation in the analog domain extracts the position information and provides immunity to external noise. A 24-bit, Σ-Δ analog-to-digital converter (ADC) digitizes the position output for high accuracy. LVDTs utilize electromagnetic coupling between the movable core and the coil assembly. Contactless, frictionless operation is a primary reason for their use in aerospace, process controls, robotics, nuclear, chemical plants, hydraulics, power turbines, and other applications where operating environments can be hostile and long life and high reliability are required. The entire circuit, including the LVDT excitation signal, consumes only 10 mW. The excitation frequency and output data rates are SPI programmable. The bandwidth can be traded for dynamic range. Supporting bandwidths of over 1 kHz, the circuit has 100-dB dynamic range at 20 Hz, making it ideal for precision industrial position and gauging applications
This compact two-chip circuit provides a contactless anisotropic magnetoresistive (AMR) measurement solution ideal for either angle or linear position measurements. The two-chip system is capable of providing better than 0.2° angular accuracy over 180°, and linear accuracy of 2 mil (0.002 inch) over a 0.5 inch range, depending on the size of the magnet used. The circuit is ideal for applications where high speed, accurate, noncontact angle and length measurements are critical, such as machine tool speed control, crane angle control, brushless dc motors, and other industrial or automotive applications.
This RF transmitter utilizes the AD9142A TxDAC, ADRF6720 wideband I/Q modulator with integrated phase-locked loop (PLL) and voltage controlled oscillator (VCO), and ADL5320 ¼-W driver amplifier. Signal biasing and scaling in the DAC-to-modulator interface circuit is controlled by four ground referenced resistors and two shunt resistors, respectively. The input and output matching on the ADL5320 driver amplifier is implemented using shunt capacitors at the input and the output.
This circuit isolates a peripheral device that already implements a USB interface. It is not possible to make a fully compliant bus-powered cable because there are no 100% efficient power converters to transfer the bus voltage across the barrier. In addition, the quiescent current of the converter does not comply with the standby current requirements of the USB standard. This is all in addition to the speed detection limitations of the ADuM4160. What can be achieved is a fixed speed or switch-controlled speed cable that can supply a modest power to the downstream peripheral. This custom application is not completely compliant with the USB standard.
This complete, fully isolated, highly flexible, four-channel analog input system is suitable for programmable logic controller (PLC) and distributed control system (DCS) applications that require multiple voltage inputs and HART-compatible 4-mA to 20-mA current inputs. The analog input circuit, designed for group isolated industrial analog inputs, can support voltage and current input ranges including ±5 V, ±10 V, 0 V to 5 V, 0 V to 10 V, 4 mA to 20 mA, and 0 mA to 20 mA. The circuit is powered from a standard 24-V bus supply and generates an isolated 5-V system supply voltage.
This battery powered circuit uses an ADuCRF101 precision analog microcontroller with ARM Cortex-M3 processor and ISM-band RF transceiver to transmit wind speed and wind direction from a passive anemometer. The on-chip 12-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and the wake-up timers acquire the wind direction and speed, respectively. In low-power hibernation mode, the ADuCRF101 draws 1.8 μA of supply current, resulting in long battery life, which is an important feature in wireless remote sensing applications. A single CR2032 Li-Ion battery can last 1 year to 2 years when operated in this mode.
This isolated flyback power supply uses a linear isolated error amplifier to supply the feedback signal from the secondary side to the primary side. Unlike optocoupler-based solutions, which have a nonlinear transfer function that changes over time and temperature, the linear transfer function of the isolated amplifier is stable and minimizes offset and gain errors when transferring the feedback signal across the isolation barrier. The entire circuit operates from 5 V to 24 V, allowing it to be used with standard industrial and automotive power supplies. The output capability of the circuit is up to 1 A with a 5-V input and 5-V output configuration. This solution can be adapted for applications where higher dc input voltages are used to create lower voltage isolated supplies with good efficiency and a small form factor. Examples include 10 W to 20 W telecommunication and server power supplies, where power efficiency and printed circuit board density are important and –48-V supplies are common.
This robust, completely isolated industrial 4-channel data-acquisition system provides 16-bit noise-free code resolution, less than 15 ppm channel-to-channel crosstalk, and an up to 42-kSPS channel switching rate. The circuit acquires and digitizes industrial signal levels of ±5 V, ±10 V, 0 V to 10 V, and 0 mA to 20 mA. The input buffers provide overvoltage protection, thereby eliminating the leakage errors associated with conventional Schottky diode protection circuits. Applications for the circuit include process control (PLC/DCS modules), battery testing, scientific multichannel instrumentation, and chromatography.
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