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Engineer-to-Engineer Application Notes

Application notes that were published within the past 12 months.

August 2016

AN-1407: Pulse Width Modulator in AC Motor Control Application

This application note introduces the main features of the ADSP-CM402F/ADSP-CM403F/ADSP-CM407F/ADSP-CM408F/ADSP-CM409F pulse width modulator (PWM) and their use in 3-phase ac motor control applications.

July 2016

AN-1406: Designing an Inverting Power Supply Using the ADP5300/ADP5301/ADP5302/ADP5303 Ultralow Power, Step-Down DC-to-DC Regulator

This application note describes how to implement the ADP5300/ADP5301/ADP5302/ADP5303 DC-to-DC reglators in a synchronous inverting buck-boost topology to generate negative output voltages from positive input voltages. It also discusses some limitations of the buck-boost topology and the possible solutions to those limitations.

AN-1412: 4 mA to 20 mA Process Control Loop Using the AD5662 DAC

In many process control applications, 2-wire current transmitters are often used to transmit analog signals through noisy environments. The circuit described in this application note provides a low power current transmitter with 16-bit resolution and monotonicity, which is powered directly from the 4 mA to 20 mA control loop power supply and consumes less than 4 mA.

AN-1363: Meeting Biasing Requirements of Externally Biased RF/Microwave Amplifiers with Active Bias Controllers

This application note provides an overview of bias sequencing requirements and the effects of using various bias conditions for radio frequency and microwave amplifiers. It presents an elegant solution for biasing amplifiers using active bias controller such as the HMC980, HMC980LP4E, HMC981, HMC981LP3E, HMC920LP5E, and all externally biased RF/microwave amplifiers.

June 2016

AN-1354: Preliminary Technical Data Integrated ZIF, RF to Bits, LTE, Wide Area Receiver Analysis and Test Result

The key focus of this application note is on the analysis and test result of an integrated, zero intermediate frequency (ZIF), RF to bits IC (AD9371) based radio receiver for multicarrier, wide area LTE operations.

May 2016

AN-1394: AES Encryption and Decryption for the ADF7023 and ADF7023- J

This application note describes the advanced encryption standard (AES) firmware module available for the ADF7023 and ADF7023-J High Performance, Low Power, ISM Band FSK/GFSK/OOK/MSK/GMSK transceivers.

April 2016

AN-1359: Low Noise, Dual-Supply Solution Using the ADP5070 for the Precision AD5761R Bipolar DAC in Single-Supply Systems

This application note describes how a system with a single unipolar supply can be used to power components requiring dual (bipolar) power supplies. The AD5761R, a bipolar digital-to-analog converter (DAC), requires dual supplies to provide bipolar output voltage ranges. The examples shown in this application note use the ADP5070 dc-to-dc switching regulator with the ADP7142 and ADP7182 complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) low dropout (LDO) linear regulators, LC filters, and resistor dividers to generate dual supplies from a 5 V single voltage supply to power the AD5761R.

March 2016

AN-1396: How to Predict the Frequency and Magnitude of the Primary Phase Truncation Spur in the Output Spectrum of a Direct Digital Synthesizer (DDS)

This application note describes a method for calculating the frequency and magnitude of a specific phase truncation spur in the spectral output of a DDS, in particular, the primary phase truncation (PPT) spur for any given frequency tuning word (FTW).

AN-1388: Coherent Sampling for Power Quality Measurements Using the AD7779 24-Bit Simultaneous Sampling Sigma-Delta ADC

This application note presents ways to achieve coherent sampling with the line frequency using the AD7779 24-Bit Simultaneous Sampling Sigma-Delta ADC and compares them against alternative techniques.

AN-1392: How to Calculate Offset Errors and Input Impedance in ADC Converters with Chopped Amplifiers

Integrated buffers and amplifiers in analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) are typically chopped. This chopping technique is required to minimize offset and flicker noise (1/f) of the amplifier, as the CMOS transistors are noisy and hard to match compared to other processes like a bipolar process. This application note describes implications of chopping in ADC applications.

AN-1393: Translating System Level Protection and Measurement Requirements to ADC Specifications

This application note provides guidelines on how to translate system level requirements for transmission and distribution applications to analog-to-digital converter (ADC) specifications provided in Analog Devices, Inc., data sheets. These guidelines show the effect of measurement and protection devices on system level performance.

AN-1394: AES Encryption and Decryption for the ADF7023 and ADF7023-J

This application note describes the advanced encryption standard (AES) firmware module available for the ADF7023 and ADF7023-J transceivers.

February 2016

AN-1383: ADP1046A EEPROM Programming

This application note focuses on the hardware considerations and software procedures to program the ADP1046A, digital controller for isolated power supply applications, in a production line environment.

AN-1375: Output Current Monitoring of High Voltage Class D Amplifier

Current monitoring is useful in commercial applications such as monitoring the output current of an audio amplifier through a speaker for sound quality compensation, as well as for protection purposes. This application note focuses on a circuit for monitoring the output current of a speaker while operating in a high voltage range. The main components used in this circuit are a Class D amplifier, the AD8479, and a low-noise rail-to-rail amplifier, the ADA4805-1.

AN-1390: Manual Band Selection for PLL Lock Time Reduction

The ADRF6820 695 MHz to 2700 MHz Quadrature Demodulator with Integrated Fractional-N PLL and VCO, contains a multicore VCO that covers a fundamental frequency range of 2800 MHz to 5700 MHz. It has an automatic calibration mode, but the total lock time in this mode may be too long for some applications. This application note proposes a step-by-step solution that significantly reduces the lock time through manual band selection.

AN-1389: Recommended Rework Procedure for the Lead Frame Chip Scale Package (LFCSP)

This application note provides a recommended procedure for removing a lead frame chip scale package (LFCSP) from a printed circuit board (PCB). This application note is supplementary to the AN-772 Application Note “A Design and Manufacturing Guide for the Lead Frame Chip Scale Package (LFCSP).”

January 2016

AN-1387: Practical Design Considerations in Applying the ADA4177 Family of Input Overvoltage Protection Operational Amplifiers

The integration of overvoltage protection (OVP) into an amplifier front end is a mechanism for addressing the environmental factors related to the normal operation of op amps. In 2014, the release of the ADA4177 family brought the Analog Devices integrated OVP solution to a low noise, precision op amp for the first time. This application note explores the application of the OVP feature as it applies to the ADA4177 and provides guidance on ways that the new OVP can allow users to extend the protected range while preventing overcurrent to the inputs and limiting self-heating.

December 2015

AN-1316: Generating Multiple Isolated Bias Rails for IGBT Motor Drives with Flyback, SEPIC, and Ćuk Combination

State-of-the-art motor drives use a 3-phase, insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT)-based inverter that is powered by a dc link voltage typically in the region of 400 V dc to 800 V dc. That high voltage rail can be derived directly from a 3-phase rectifier bridge filter combination or from a power factor corrected boost rectifier, which produces the high voltage rail from a 3-phase ac input. This detailed application note addresses some of the basic requirements and considerations involved with designing these bias rails.

AN-1381: How to Bypass VCO Calibration for the ADF4355-2

For any given output frequency, the ADF4355-2 uses a certain voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) core, band, and bias code. These three settings are selected automatically during the VCO automatic calibration (AUTOCAL) cycle and the settings are read from the ADF4355-2 and stored in a lookup table. This application note shows how to use this lookup table to bypass the AUTOCAL routine which dramatically decreases the total lock time when changing the frequency.

November 2015

AN-1026: High Speed Differential ADC Driver Design Considerations

Though ADCs with differential inputs can accept single-ended input signals, optimum ADC performance is achieved when the input signal is differential. This application note addresses the design considerations around ADC drivers—circuits often specifically designed to provide such differential signals—that perform many additional important functions, including amplitude scaling, single-ended to differential conversion, buffering, common-mode offset adjustment, and filtering.

AN-1370: Design Implementation of the ADF7242 Pmod Evaluation Board Using the Johanson Technology, Inc., 2450AT18A100 Chip Antenna

This application note describes the use and design implementation of the EVAL-ADF7242-PMDZ, a 2.4 GHz wireless transceiver peripheral module (Pmod™) evaluation board that uses an ADF7242 transceiver in conjunction with a Johanson 2450AT18A100 chip antenna. The chip antenna makes the ADF7242 evaluation board more compact, more cost effective, and easier to use.

October 2015

AN-1382: ADP1055 EEPROM Programming

The ADP1055 digital controller for power supply applications with PMBus interface offers a register map and an EEPROM that are programmed with settings for a specific application. This application note focuses on the software procedure to program the ADP1055.

AN-1373: ADA4530-1 Femtoampere Level Input Bias Current Measurement

The ADA4530-1 is a single, electrometer grade operational amplifier with a femtoampere (10−15) level input bias current (IB) and an ultralow offset voltage. This application note highlights several different methods for measuring the ADA4530-1 femtoampere level input bias current feature in the SOIC package using the ADA4530-1R-EBZ-TIA or the ADA4530-1R-EBZ-BUF evaluation board.

AN-1344: High Common-Mode Voltage Current Loop Transmitter Front End

The current loop is a common signaling technique for sending and receiving sensor data over long distances. This application note highlights the AD8479 serving as a front end for a current loop transmitter that enables the transmitter to operate in applications with very high CMV, such as motor controls and high voltage current sensing.

AN-1308: Common-Mode Step Response of Current Sense Amplifiers

Current sense amplifiers are one of the specialty amplifiers from Analog Devices, Inc., used to amplify small differential signals in the presence of large common-mode voltages. A typical application for a current sense amplifier is amplifying the voltage across a shunt resistor. This application note details how to set-up for, and measure the current-mode step response of ADI’s current sense amplifier portfolio.

September 2015

AN-1377: Gain and Offset Temperature Drift Compensation for the AD7403/AD7405

The AD7403/AD7405 are high performance, second-order, Σ-Δ modulators that convert an analog input signal into a high speed, single-bit data stream, with on-chip digital isolation based on Analog Devices. Inc., iCoupler® technology. This application note describes a method of using a collocated, system integrated, temperature sensor with the AD7403/AD7405 devices to calibrate out a large degree of offset and gain error drift over temperature.

AN-1371: Variable Dynamic Range

Variable dynamic range (VDR) provides an efficient, non- obstructive technique to provide wideband, high resolution, and fast sample rate to digital predistortion (DPD) observation receivers. In this application, nonlinearities are measured and digitally corrected such that overall intermodulation performance is significantly better than that of the core signal chain while at the same time boosting amplifier efficiency.

AN-1367: I2C Interface Between the ADE7953 and the ADuCM360

This application note demonstrates the implementation of an I2C interface between the ADE7953 (the slave) and the ADuCM360 (the master), using C programming language. The ADE7953 is a single-phase energy metering IC, and the ADuCM360 is an ARM® Cortex®-M3-based microcontroller.

AN-1374: ADE7912/ADE7913 Front-End DSP Specifications

This application note explains several aspects of the digital filtering associated with the Σ-Δ modulators used in the ADE7912/ADE7913. The role of the filters is to decimate the outputs of the modulators to various rates, while eliminating high frequency noise. These rates start from a high of 8 kHz and go as low as 1 kHz, allowing the user to update the rates to the microcontroller processing bandwidth.

AN-1365: AD1933/AD1934/AD1938/AD1939/AD1974 Boot Up Application

The AD1933/AD1934/AD1938/AD1939/AD1974 family of codecs, ADCs, and DACs have a standalone mode of operation that allows them to be used without a microcontroller. This application note details a low cost solution for booting up these parts in any desired mode of operation. For this example, a Microchip® PIC12(L)F1571/PIC12(L)F1572 is used to boot up the AD1938 and also provides for a mute function. This part is very low cost and is available through normal distribution channels. It is offered in a variety of packages to meet the cost/size needs of most applications.

AN-1250: Interfacing an ADT7310/ADT7410 to a Cortex-M3 Based Precision Analog Microcontroller (ADuCM360)

This application note describes how to connect evaluation boards and how to easily start collecting high accuracy, digital temperature readings from the ADT7310 and ADT7410 sensors using the Cortex-M3® based precision Analog Devices Inc., microcontrollers, such as the ADuCM360.

August 2015

AN-1366: Using the ADP5070/ADP5071 to Create Positive and Negative Voltage Rails when VOUT < VIN

This application note provides appropriate design formulas and considerations for designing the ADP5070/ADP5071 in one of the least understood, yet most commonly used, dc-to-dc converter topologies, the SEPIC configuration.

AN-1368: Ferrite Bead Demystified< VIN

This application note discusses the important considerations that system designers need to be aware of when using ferrite beads in power supply systems, including response characteristics of the ferrite bead, a simplified ferrite bead model and simulation, dc current considerations, LC resonance effects, and damping methods.

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