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The Best of Analog Dialogue

Subject Index

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A
Addressing, data, DSP 200
AGC, see Automatic gain control
ALU, see Arithmetic and logic unit
Amplifier, audio, op amp as 180
Amplifier, difference, grounding with 86
Amplifier, instrumentation 59
offset, referred to input (RTI) and output (TRO) 59
Amplifier, isolation 110
as coupling 50
applications:
electronic instrumentation 115
noise & vibration measurement 111
temperature measurement 111
circuit practice 50
guidelines 50
high-linearity 110
Model 289 110
applications 111
principle 110
synchronizable 110
three-port 110
wideband 110
shielding & guarding 50
Amplifier, logarithmic, wideband, AD640 189
analysis, simplified 191
biasing accuracy in 192
block diagram 190
implementation 191
temperature stabilization 192
theory 190
Amplifier, operational (op amp) 9, 19, 32, 48, 66, 151, 177, 185, 202
as electrometer 48
as integrator 3
common-mode rejection (CMR) 15, 16
complementary bipolar (CB) process AD840 series 177
applications 179
comparative specifications 177
J-FET input (AD845) 178
speed and accuracy 177
testing179
transimpedance (AD846) 178
wideband, high-slew-rate (AD847) 179
wideband, fast-settling (AD840/41/42) 178
current, bias 13, 14
current, difference, initial—and test 13, 14
decoupling 194
dielectric absorption in circuits 35
distortion11
drift 13
with time 14
equivalent circuit 9
femtoampere (10-15 A) measurements with 48
gain test 10
high speed 66
choosing 67
impedance, input 14
test circuits 15
inputs, guarding 148
loop gain 10
measurements, bandwidth and slew rate 11
noise 19, 151, 202
calculations 155
curves 29
gain 21
input 16
model 20
response, dynamic 156
source impedance 203
spectral density 29
testing 157
open-loop gain 9, 10
overload recovery 12
response 32, 66
full-power 11, 12
unity gain 11
settling time 32, 67
and voltage swing 36-38
bibliography 42
factors affecting 33, 34
measuring 39, 40
minimizing—suggestions 36, 68
pole-zero mismatch 41
specifications, limitations of 39
specifying 36
thermal effects 36
signal gain 21
slew rate 11, 12, 35, 66
specifications 9
supply voltage, sensitivity to 14
tests (see also individual parameters) 10
CMR 16
full-power response 12
overload recovery 12
slew rate 12
voltage:
between inputs, maximum15
common-mode, maximum 15
offset, initial—and test 13, 14
Amplifier trimming 185
Amplifier, voltage-controlled, AD534 multiplier as 77
Antilogarithmic and logarithmic analog computation,
with AD538 y(z/x)m, multifunction

164
Antilogarithmic circuits, in multifunction module 55
Approximating functions with DSP building blocks160
Arctangent computation with multifunction circuit 62
Arithmetic and logic unit (ALU), floating point, ADSP-3220 168
Arithmetic functions in DSP 199
Attenuation, digitally controlled, with DACs 92
Audio measurements, dB and true-rms 81
Automatic gain control (AGC), level-independent:
as tracking ADC 130
using LOGDAC™ 130
 
B
Bangap principle 71
Bandgap voltage reference 71
Bandwidth, noise- vs. signal 22
Board, printed-circuit:
ground circuits 195
grounding 195
layout problems, avoiding 195
magnetic effects 195
problems of, static and dynamic 147
Bridge linearization, multiplier in (AD534) 78
Bypassing 84
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C
Cable capacitance, in electrometer circuits 49
Calibration 185
Capacitances, system, typical 121
Capacitor:
dielectric absorption, see Dielectric absorption
dissipation factor 7, 144
in integrator circuit 6
insulation resistance 6
leakage 144
performance table 6
problems of (see also Dielectric absorption, dissipation factor, leakage):
other effects 144
parasitic effects 144
problems in assembly 145
temperature 144
tolerance 144
CEG/DAC™ antialiasing D/A converter for video graphics:
algorithm 210
color transition smoothing 210
design 211
example 212
"jaggie" elimination 210
principles 211
Circuit practice (see also Practice), interference reduction
for video converters

149
Circuits, printed: rules 149
CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductors)
& static electricity

69
circuit protection 69, 70
D/A converters, advantages 63
SCR "latch" mechanism 69
switches 116
dielectrically isolated 116
equivalent circuit 116
in DACs (see also DACs and Converters, D/A) 64
Codec (coder-decoder) 108
Communications, serial 184
sensor information 181
Components, passive 143
avoiding pitfalls 143
bibliography 148
Computation, algebraic
converters in 94
quotients 94
Computation, analog (see also specific functions):
converters in 94
D% ratio, AD534 in 77
Conditioning, signal- 184
with 6B Series 181
Controller, current- 96
Conversion, frequency-to-voltage with AD537 75
Conversion, high speed, bibliography 109
trouble—avoiding 109
Conversion, temperature-to-frequency, V/f used in 73-75
Converter, analog-to-digital (A/D, see also ADC) 45, 73, 97, 105,
118, 181, 196
12-bit, complete IC, AD574 97
analog features 97
digital controls 97
multiplexing 8-bit bus 99
standalone conversion 99
technology 100
"flash" 107, 196
10-bit AD9020/60 197
evaluation board 198
interpolation in 196
linearity improvement 198
performance 198
principles 198
Gray code 106
input loading, buffering (see also successive approximation) 87, 180
noise effects in 204
per-channel 45-47
ranging converter using multiplying DAC 92
subranging conversion 107
digitally corrected 108
trimming 185
successive approximation, input buffering 82, 87, 88, 180
testing 118
automatic 118
linearity 119
transition finding 118
Converter applications, circuit ideas 94
Converter, digital-to-analog (D/A, DAC) 63, 82, 92, 94, 105, 130, 206, 209
AD7520 63
applications 65
circuit ideas 94
CMOS:
advantages 63
equivalent circuit 64
variable output resistance effects 84
zeroing problems 83
current output, CMOS:
application problems 82
capacitive load 82, 83
displays 210
dither, in testing A/D converters 119
glitches 33, 106
monolithic 63
multiplying 63
application ideas for 92
gain control in 92
trimming 185
Converter, frequency-to-voltage (f/V)
inverse VFC 188
phase-locked loop 188
synchronous 188
Converter, high speed, applications, specs, testing 108
Converter, ohms-to-frequency 94
Converter, resistance-to-frequency 94
Converter, temperature-to-frequency, with AD537 VFC 75
Converter, voltage-to-frequency (V/f, VFC) 73, 187
AD537 IC 73
applications 74,75
as data encoder 75
as f/V converter 75
circuit ideas 94
interfacing with resistive transducer 75
performance 74
principle 73
single supply 73
square-wave out 73
two-wire operation 75
charge-balance type 187
circuit precautions 188
errors 187
multivibrator type 187
software calibration 187
synchronous 188
trimming gain 185
trimming gain and offset 185, 187
Converters, video (see also specific types) 105, 196, 209
Convolution 135
Cosine computation with multifunction circuit 62
Crest factor (ratio of peak to rms) 22
Current controller 96
Current-loop output, 6B Series 181
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D
Data acquisition 45, 103, 105, 181, 196
conventional 45-47
vs. converter-per-channel 45-47
high speed 105
practice 109
video 105
Decoupling84, 87, 120
ineffective 85
op amps 193
Delays, matching, measuring unknowns with AD9500 176
Dielectric absorption (see also Capacitor) 7, 143
and settling time 35
in electrometer circuits 49
in sample-holds 52
Dielectric isolation 116
Digital signal processor, single-chip (DSP) 171, 199
architecture 171-173
arithmetic 172, 173, 199
choice of 199
data flow 173, 199
instruction set 173, 199
program sequencing 173, 199
vs."CISC" 201
vs. "RISC" 201
arithmetic computations 171-174, 199
data addressing 172, 173, 200
program sequencing 172, 173, 200
Displays: "jaggies", eliminating using CEG/DAC™ 209
Divider (analog computing, see also multifunction) 55, 58
AD534 analog multiplier, basic connections 76
with AD538 y(z/x)m, multifunction circuit 164
errors 167
Double-precision arithmetic 168
Drift (see also Offset)
integrator 3
long term, vs. 1/f noise 205
op amp, with temperature 13
 
E
Electrometer 48
cable capacitance effects 49
input current limits 49
noise 49
resistors for 48
using op amps 48
voltage drift 49
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F
Filter, analog vs digital 135
Filter, digital 135, 171
adaptive 136
basics 135
characteristics
ease of design 136
efficiency 137
memory requirements 137
phase response 136
sensitivity to coefficient error 136
stability 136
design 135
hardware 140
Remez exchange algorithm 138
roundoff error 141
simulation in software 141
multipliers in 135
non-recursive135
references 142
terminology 142
type:
finite impulse response (FIR) 136
infinite impulse response (IIR) 136
lattice 136
Filter, FIR (finite impulse-response) 135, 136
design 135
windowing approach 137
analog time-domain, digitally programmable 93
Filter, low-pass, voltage-controlled using AD534 79
Filter, programmable digitally, using an M-DAC 93
Filter, time domain, digitally programmed (analog FIR) 93
FIR, see Filters 135
Floating-point arithmetic chips 168
pipelined operation 170
Floating point, IEEE-754, single- and double precision 169
Fourier theorem in filter design 136
Functions, approximation 60, 160
analog, see Multifunction
DSP in 160
fast and simple 160
Newton-Raphson 160
errors 162
implementation 161
preparations 161
simpler implementations 162, 163
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G
Gain:
adjustment63, 76, 92, 94,
130, 189, 206
automatic, TrimDAC7™(DAC-8840/41) 206, 207
logarithmic, with LOGDAC™130
amplifier noise gain and signal gain 21
calibration, digital 96
digitally controlled 92
programmable, for trimming 95
trimming185
DACs in (see also Trim) 96
Gaussian distribution, noise 151
Glitch, in D/A converters 106
Graphics, video, principles in brief 210
Grounding, amplifier: difference-input 86
Grounding 82, 149, 193
current path in 195
high-frequency193
improper 85
low-frequency 193
proper 85, 86
Ground, op-amp 193
Guarding 124, 128
op-amp inputs 148
vs. shielding 128
 
H
High-speed-and-accuracy signal handling82
High-speed circuits, ground rules: layout & wiring 149
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I
IEEE-754 floating-point standard, arithmetic chips for 168
IIR filter (see also Filter) 136
Instrumentation, electrical, isolation amplifiers in 111
Integration-complementary monolithic processing 100
Integrator, analog 3
errors:
bandwidth 4
gain 4
high-frequency 4
impedance 4
in hold 5
low frequency 5
due to finite gain 5
feedback capacitors in 6
for ac signals 7
frequency response 8
gain, open-loop, effective 8
leakage resistance 7
test circuit 8
Interference (see also Noise, interference) 120, 124
minimizing 149
proper techniques, diagrams 84
understanding 120
Isolation, dielectric, for CMOS switches 116
Isolator (see also Amplifier, isolation)
circuit practice 50
three-port 110
 
J
 
K
 
L
Leakage, in capacitors 144
Linearity, A/D converters, testing 119
Linearizing:
in 6B input/output signal conditioners 184
RTD (resistance temperature detector) 184
Logarithm and antilogarithm, analog computation
using multifunction devices

55
AD538 y(z/x)m multifunction 164
log ratio with 167
LOGDAC™, M-DAC with linear analog response
and exponential conversion gain

130
AD711x130
AGC application 130
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M
MACBASIC, language for MACSYM II 104
MACSYM II Measurement And Control SYsteM,
described, features, and software

103, 104
M-DAC (multiplying D/A converter, see also Converter) 93
Meter, dB 81
Meter, true-RMS 81
Microprocessor, DSP, single-chip ADSP-2100 171, 199
Benchmarks171
computing with 172
example of FIR filter design 174
instruction set 173
memory communications172
system development173
Modulator, amplitude-, AD534 as 77
Multifunction, analog computing device, y(z/x)m,
(see also individual functions)

55, 60 164
AD538 IC 164
dividers compared, 57, 166
division, 57, 166
minimizes noise 58
exponents, non-integer 61, 167
logarithms 57, 167
log of voltage ratio 58, 167
model 433, module 55-58, 59, 60-62
performance characteristics 57, 165-167
principles 55, 57, 165, 166
rms computation 58
root-sum-of-squares computation 60
square root computation 57
trig functions 61, 62
vector summation 58
Multiplier, analog (see also Multifunction) 55, 60, 76, 164
AD534 IC 76
applications 77-81
as divider, basic connections 76
as multiplier, basic connections 76
AD538 y(z/x)m, multifunction as multiplier 164
laser-trimmed 76
linearized transconductance 76
multifunction circuit as 55, 164
output as voltage-to-current converter 77
translinear 76
Multiplier, digital 135, 160, 168, 171, 199
floating point ADSP-3210 168
in filter design 135
Multiplier-divider, analog (see also Multifunction) 55, 164
AD538 y(z/x)m, multifunction as 164
applications 166
characteristics 165
how it works 165
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N
Noise (see also Noise, interference)19, 120, 124, 151, 202
1/f, (see also flicker) 24, 152
and drift 205
spectral density 25
amplifier 151, 154
current 27
voltage 27
bandwidth, vs. signal bandwidth 22
bibliography 31, 157, 203
capacitively coupled, dealing with 121, 124
characterization of 22
combining154
common-impedance 121
computation example 26, 27
crest factor 22, 154
current 20
defined 19
device (also inherent; intrinsic) 22, 120, 151, 202
interference (also induced) 22, 120, 151, 202
transmitted (arriving with the signal) 120, 151
density spectrum 153
equivalent resistance 155
filter:
brick-wall 156
skirts 25, 156
flicker (see also 1/f) 23, 24, 154
Gaussian distribution in 151, 203
in devices 151
induced 151
in feedback circuits 21
inherent 22
Johnson 23, 152, 203
low frequency, measurements 204
magnetically coupled 122, 126, 127
loop effects 128
op amp 19
calculations 155
model 20
random, sources 202
peak values 22
vs. rms 204
popcorn 23, 24, 152, 204
practical considerations 30
quantitative measures 152
random152
bibliography 157
current 202
measuring 151
understanding 151
why ÖHz? 202
references, see bibliography
relevant points 25
resistors 27
rms value 22
measurement80
vs. peak-to-peak 204
root-sum-of-squares (RSS) summation 21
shot (or Schottky) 23, 24, 152
applicability of formula 205
source impedance 203
spectral density 34
examples 153
"pink" noise 25
plots 29
spot noise 25, 153
summation using pink noise tangent approach 26
white noise 24
testing 157
thermal 23
transmitted 151
voltage 20
white 152, 153
why be concerned 151
Noise & vibration measurement, w/ isolation amplifiers 111
Noise figure 28, 155, 203
Noise gain 204
Noise, interference (see also Noise) 19, 22, 120, 124
assumptions 120
basic principle 120
excluding 124
high-frequency, grounding 195
rational approaches 120
reduction 120, 124
bibliography 129
decoupling 194
grounding 193
sources 23, 120, 124
capacitively coupled 121
common-impedance 121
coupling—capacitive vs. magnetic 122
magnetically coupled 121
miscellaneous sources 121
possible solutions 123
power-line transients 121, 122
understanding 120
vs. "internal" 202
Noise power ratio (NPR) 108
Nonlinear effects on amplifier settling time 35
NPR, see Noise power ratio
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O
Offset:
adjustment, automatic, using TrimDAC™ 206
input, trimming 186
integrator 3
output, trimming 186
Op amp, see Amplifier, operational
Oscillator:
programmable, using AD9500 delay generator 176
square wave, programmable, 8-bit 95
two-phase, voltage-controlled, using AD534 79
Wien-bridge, stabilized, using AD534 79
 
P
Potentiometers, problems of 147
Powers & roots—analog computation
using AD538 y(z/x)m, multifunction

164
Power supply interference, bypassing 82
Power supply, linear vs switching 109
Practice, circuit:
bibliography 148
general 149
grounding 150
high speed 109
power supplies 150
using ICs 150
what to overlook (nothing!) 148
Printed-circuit boards, problems of:
dynamic 147
rules 149
static 147
Processing, signal-, digital, see DSP 171, 199
PTAT (proportional to absolute temperature)71, 89, 192
 
Q
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R
R-2R ladder, in DAC 64
Reference, voltage71
AD58071
bandgap circuits 71, 72
IC71
Zener 71
synthetic 71
Remez exchange algorithm in digital filter design 138
Request-to-send (RTS), in serial communication with 6B Series 183
Resistors 143
electrometer applications 48
problems of 145, 146
aging 146
excess noise 146
failures 146
parasitic effects 146
self-heating 145
temperature effects 145
thermoelectric effects 146
voltage effects 146
variable, vs. TrimDAC™208
RMS, see Root mean-square
Roots and powers in analog computations
using the AD538 y(z/x)m multifunction device

164
Root mean-square (RMS) 22, 78, 80, 81
and peak 22
decibel (dB) output80, 81
measurement 80
multifunction device in 58
wideband, high-crest-factor, with AD534 78
-to-dB meter 81
-to-dc converter, monolithic, AD536 80, 81
applications 81
principle 81
vs. ac average 22
Root sum-of-squares (RSS) 21
computation with multifunction circuit 60
RTD (resistance temperature detector) to serial output, using 6B Series 181
RTS (request-to-send) in serial communications with the 6B Series 183
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S
Sample-hold (also track-hold) 51, 105
applications 53, 54
characteristics 51
design examples 52, 53
errors 51
hold mode
dielectric absorption52
droop 52
feedthrough 52
hold-to-sample
acquisition time52
hold-to-sample transients 52
sample mode
nonlinearity 51
sample mode offset 51
sample mode scale-factor error 51
sample mode settling time 52
sample-to-hold
aperture time 52
sample-to-hold offset 52
sample-to-hold settling time 52
sample-to-hold switching transients 52
uses 51
Sensor:
serial input/output (VO) using the 6B Series 181
-to-serial with the 6B Series 182
gain & rangmg 182
gate array 182
isolation 182
microcontrol 182
reference calibration 182
serial commumcations 183
temperature compensation 182
Sequencing, program-, in DSP 200
Serial input/output, sensors for usmg the 6B Series 181
Settling time 32
bibliography 42
definition 32, 33
long tails 36
measuring 39, 40
minimizing in op-amp circuit 36
pole-zero mismatch effects 41
sample-holds 52
specifications, limitations of 39
specifying 36
"specsmanship" 33
thermal effects 36
Shield:
driven 128
electrostatic 124-126
proper connection 125
mumetal 127
Shielding 124
attenuation, various materials 127
considerations, compared 129
effect vs. thickness 127
shielding, twisted pairs 127
vs. guarding 128
Signals:
analog to serial 183
analog transmission using VFC 187
handling for high speed and accuracy 82
Sine:
approximation using the AD534 78
multifunction-circuit approximation 61
Square root, multiplier as, using the AD534 79
Squares, difference of, using the AD534 78
Switches, analog, CMOS 116
dielectrically isolated 116
equivalent circuit 116
in DACs 64
in op amp circuits 117
RON vs VD(VS) 117
Systems, conversion, high-speed—practice 109
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T
Tan-l, using multifunction circuits 62
Temperature measurement 89
difference, using the AD590 91
isolation amplifiers in 111
multiplexing, with AD590 matrix 91
Testing, automatic 115, 118
A/D converters, using LTS-2000 family 118
linearity of A/D converters 119
Test system, automatic, for components, LTS-2000 family 115
Thermocouple to serial digital output, using 6B Series 181
Time delay, programmable, using the AD9500 IC 175
applications 176
how it works 175
Time, settling-, of op amps, see Settling time
Track-hold, see also Sample-hold 51
Transducer, absolute-temperature-to-current, AD590, 1 µA/K 89
accuracy 90
applications 91
ease of application 89
principle 89, 90
trimming 90
Transients, power line 122
Transition-finding in automatic A/D converter testing 105
TrimDAC™ vs. variable resistors 208
Trimming, automatic, TrimDAC™ 206
Trimming: circuits, gain, and offsets 185, 186
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U
 
V
VFC, see Converter, voltage-to-frequency
VGA graphics, improvement with CEG/DAC™209
Video converters 105
Video line driver, op amp as 180
Voltage offset, programmable 96
 
W
 
X
 
Y
 
Z

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