編集後記

When reading through some of the more complex articles in Analog Dialogue, I often think about their practical application. As many of you might know, I am a member of an electronics repair café in my hometown. The goal is to get community members together to repair equipment and give it a second life. After I organized the opening of our fourth electronics repair café, we had collected significant data related to equipment failure. 80% of the time, electronic equipment has damage to mechanical elements. That’s especially true for coffee machines, which typically had clogged ventils preventing water flow. In this case, even the best softening agent is useless, as it cannot flow through the clogged area. Nearly 90% of machine malfunction is caused by mineral buildup, or scale. Some good advice: decalcify your machine as often as every four weeks in case you have hard water. As we see how important proper maintenance is for even the simplest everyday appliances, think of how important maintenance is for more complex, specialized equipment—for example, ADAS systems in cars. Kudos to the car electronics developers.

And now, back to the articles in this month’s issue of Analog Dialogue

Our article “How to Cancel Ambient Light for LIDAR Receivers” discusses the challenge ambient light creates for LIDAR systems and presents an analog solution that does not increase the noise floor. Typically, a columnated light traveling in the same direction, or a laser pulse, is sent out to a spot. To detect objects at >100 meters, high gains are needed to detect the small amount of reflected light due to the inverse square law loss. One of the consequences for using high gains in the receiver is the effects of ambient light. The Sun is a light source with a broad spectrum of wavelengths. Unfortunately, to detect far objects, we have significant gains in the receiver and the Sun’s ambient light can saturate the receiver even with natural nulls in the spectrum. This blinds the system. However, the effects of ambient light on LIDAR receiver chains can be mitigated.

I2C or Inter-Integrated Circuit is a common serial communication protocol used in establishing communication between devices specially for two or more different circuits. In “I2C Communication Protocol: Understanding I2C Primer, PMBus, and SMBus,” authors Mary Grace Legaspi and Eric Peňa discuss the differences and usage of I2C and its variant subset SMBus (System Management Bus) and PMBus® (Power Management Bus). Each have dedicated functions intended to address different customer requirements. I2C uses synchronous communication with multi-main, multi-node, and serial communication buses. I2C is widely used for connecting lower speed peripheral ICs to processors and microcontrollers.

With the help of simulation tools, a power supply can be designed to fit the necessary specifications. However, the rated value of components such as resistors or capacitors can vary in practice and component tolerance must be considered. The tolerance affects the accuracy of the output voltage. ADI authors Henry Zhang and Jose Ramon San Buenaventura cover this in their article “How to Improve Power Supply Output Regulation Accuracy with the LTpowerCAD Resistor Divider Tool.” Specifically, by using the concept of the gradient of a multivariable function, they describe how to use component tolerances and estimate the corresponding errors in the output voltage. Armed with this information, designers can identify the allowable tolerance for their application.

RF amplifiers come in a variety of types and forms designed to address different application scenarios. The broad diversity of RF amplifier designs existing today does not always make it easy to select the right device for the target application. While the key characteristic of virtually every RF amplifier is its gain, it is not the only and, often, not even the most defining parameter to consider. This article will review the most commonly used RF amplifiers. In the article, “A Guide to Choosing the Right RF Amplifier for Your Application,” Anton Patyuchenko describes how gain, noise, bandwidth, efficiency, and various functional features affect amplifier selection.

The role of any output stage is to provide power at the output. It should have high input impedance and low output impedance. An obvious choice for this stage is the emitter follower. To provide both current sourcing and sinking capabilities, two complementary followers are needed: an NPN type to source and a PNP type to sink current. Antoniu Miclaus and Doug Mercer investigate the simple push-pull amplifier output stages (class B and AB) in the StudentZone article “ADALM2000 Activity: Amplifier Output Stages.”

In addition to this month’s articles, I would like to share a few recent webinars led by some of the experts at ADI. Pravinkumar Angolkar and Prasanna Thirumaleshwara share their knowledge about a unified communications platform for next-gen conferencing products, Chas Frick covers simulated phased array stabilization, and Maurice O’Brien and Chris Murphy discuss intelligent motion control’s importance in smart manufacturing

And as we have for 55 years, we invite you to be part of the dialogue in Analog Dialogue. You can get in touch through our blogFacebook page, or email. Let us know how we’re doing and what you’d like to see from us in the coming months.