The combination of parts shown in Figure 1 provides an ultralow power, 3-axis, motion activated power switch solution capable of controlling up to 1.1 A of load current. The circuit is ideal for applications where extended battery life is critical. When the switch is off, the battery current is less than 300 nA, and when the switch is on, it draws less than 3 μA. The circuit provides an industry leading, low power motion sensing solution suitable for wireless sensors, metering devices, home healthcare, and other portable applications.
The 3-axis accelerometer controls the high-side switch by monitoring the acceleration in three axes and closes or opens the switch depending on the presence or absence of motion.
The ADXL362 is an ultralow power, 3-axis accelerometer that consumes less than 100 nA in wake-up mode. Unlike accelerometers that use power duty cycling to achieve low power consumption, the ADXL362 does not alias input signals by under sampling; it samples continuously at all data rates. There is also an on-chip, 12-bit temperature sensor accurate to ±0.5°.
The ADXL362 provides 12-bit output resolution and has three operating ranges, ±2 g, ±4 g, and ±8 g. It is specified over a minimum temperature range of −40°C to +85°C. For applications where a noise level less than 480 μg/√Hz is desired, either of its two lower noise modes (down to 120 μg/√Hz) can be selected at a minimal increase in supply current.
The ADP195 is a high-side load switch designed for operation between 1.1 V and 3.6 V and is protected against reverse current flow from output to input. The device contains a low on-resistance, P-channel MOSFET that supports over 1.1 A of continuous load current and minimizes power losses.
Figure 1. Ultralow Power Standalone Motion Switch (Simplified Schematic: Decoupling and All Connections Not Shown)
Basic Operation of the ADXL362
The ADXL362 is a three-axis, ultralow power acceleration measurement system capable of measuring dynamic acceleration (resulting from motion or shock) as well as static acceleration (that is, gravity).
The moving component of the sensor is a polysilicon, surface micromachined structure, also referred to as a beam, built on top of a silicon wafer. Polysilicon springs suspend the structure over the surface of the wafer and provide a resistance against acceleration forces.
Deflection of the structure is measured using differential capacitors. Each capacitor consists of independent fixed plates and plates attached to the moving mass. Any acceleration deflects the beam and unbalances the differential capacitor, resulting in a sensor output whose amplitude is proportional to acceleration. Phase-sensitive demodulation is used to determine the magnitude and polarity of the acceleration.
Modes of Operation
The three basic modes of operation for the ADXL362 are standby, measurement, and wake-up.
The ADXL362 offers a few options for decreasing noise at the expense of only a small increase in current consumption.
The noise performance of the ADXL362 in normal operation, typically 7 LSB rms at 100 Hz bandwidth, is adequate for most applications, depending upon bandwidth and the desired resolution. For cases where lower noise is needed, the ADXL362 provides two lower noise, operating modes that trade reduced noise for somewhat higher supply current.
Table 1. ADXL362 Noise vs. Supply Current
|Mode||Noise (µg/vHz Typical)||Current Consumption (µA Typical)|
Table 1 shows the supply current values and noise densities obtained for normal operation and the two lower noise modes, at a typical 3.3 V supply.
The ADXL362 has built-in logic that detects activity (acceleration above a certain threshold) and inactivity (lack of acceleration above a certain threshold).
Detection of an activity or inactivity event is indicated in the status register and can also be configured to generate an interrupt. In addition, the activity status of the device, that is, whether it is moving or stationary, is indicated by the AWAKE bit.
Activity and inactivity detection can be used when the accelerometer is in either measurement mode or wake-up mode.
An activity event is detected when acceleration stays above a specified threshold for a user-specified time period. The two activity detection events are absolute and referenced.
The CN0274 evaluation software uses the referenced mode of operation when searching for activity.
An inactivity event is detected when acceleration remains below a specified threshold for a specified time. The two inactivity detection events are absolute and referenced.
The CN0274 evaluation software uses the referenced mode of operation when searching for inactivity.
Linking Activity and Inactivity Detection
The activity and inactivity detection functions can be used concurrently, and processed manually by a host processor, or they can be configured to interact in several ways:
The AWAKE Bit
The AWAKE bit is a status bit that indicates whether the ADXL362 is awake or asleep. The device is awake when it has seen an activity condition, and the device is asleep when it has seen an inactivity condition.
The awake signal can be mapped to the INT1 or INT2 pin and can thus be used as a status output to connect or disconnect power to downstream circuitry based on the awake status of the accelerometer. Used in conjunction with loop mode, this configuration implements a trivial, autonomous motion-activated switch.
If the turn-on time of the downstream circuitry can be tolerated, this motion switch configuration can save significant system-level power by eliminating the standby current consumption of the rest of the application. This standby current can often exceed the full operating current of the ADXL362.
Several of the built-in functions of the ADXL362 can trigger interrupts to alert the host processor of certain status conditions.
Interrupts may be mapped to either (or both) of two designated output pins, INT1 and INT2, by setting the appropriate bits in the INTMAP1 and INTMAP2 registers. All functions can be used simultaneously. If multiple interrupts are mapped to one pin, the OR combination of the interrupts determines the status of the pin.
If no functions are mapped to an interrupt pin, that pin is automatically configured to a high impedance (high-Z) state. The pins are placed in this state upon a reset as well.
When a certain status condition is detected, the pin that condition is mapped to is activated. The configuration of the pin is active high by default, so that when it is activated, the pin goes high. However, this configuration can be switched to active low by setting the INT_LOW pin in the appropriate INTMAP register.
The INT pins may be connected to the interrupt input of a host processor and interrupts responded to with an interrupt routine. Because multiple functions can be mapped to the same pin, the STATUS register can be used to determine which condition caused the interrupt to trigger.
All testing was performed using the EVAL-CN0274-SDPZ and the EVAL-SDP-CS1Z. Functionality of the part is demonstrated by setting the activity threshold at 0.5 g, the inactivity threshold at 0.75 g, and the number of inactivity samples at 20. When looking for activity, only one acceleration sample on any axis is required to cross the threshold.
Starting with the circuit oriented so that the battery pack is flat against the table, the printed circuit board (PCB) can be slowly rotated 90° in any direction causing the acceleration to cross the threshold as it approaches perpendicular to the initial orientation.
Figure 2 shows a screen shot of the CN0274 evaluation software showing the ADXL362 first asleep, looking for activity. Then, when Sample 11 crosses the threshold, the ADXL362 enters the awake state and begins looking for inactivity. The thresholds adjust to show the device is now looking for inactivity.
Figure 2. Screen Shot of Evaluation Software Output
For better visibility, the X-axis and Z-axis plots are disabled using the radio buttons above the chart.
The output of the ADP195, or the interrupt pin itself, was measured using a digital multimeter. When the ADXL362 is awake, the interrupt goes high and drives the EN pin of the ADP195, high, which in turn drives the gate of the MOSFET low, causing the switch to close, connecting any downstream circuitry to the power supply. Conversely, when the ADXL362 is asleep, the interrupt drives the EN pin of the ADP195 low, which in turn drives the gate of the MOSFET high, causing the switch to open.PCB Layout Considerations
In any circuit where accuracy is crucial, it is important to consider the power supply and ground return layout on the board. The PCB should isolate the digital and analog sections as much as possible. The PCB for this system was constructed in a 4-layer stack up with large area ground plane layers and power plane polygons. See the MT-031 Tutorial for more discussion on layout and grounding, and the MT-101 Tutorial for information on decoupling techniques.
Decouple the power supply to the ADXL362 with 1 μF and 0.1 μF capacitors to properly suppress noise and reduce ripple. Place the capacitors as close to the device as possible. Ceramic capacitors are advised for all high frequency decoupling.
Power supply lines should have as large a trace width as possible to provide low impedance paths and reduce glitch effects on the supply line. Shield clocks and other fast switching digital signals from other parts of the board by digital ground. A photo of the PCB is shown in Figure 3.
A complete design support package for this circuit note can be found at www.analog.com/CN0274-DesignSupport.
Figure 3. Photo of EVAL-CN0274-SDPZ PCB
By sacrificing approximately 15 μA of quiescent current, the ADP197 is capable of providing 3 A of current to downstream circuitry. For applications requiring less downstream power, the ADP190 can be used. It has a continuous current of 500 mA and is available in a smaller WLCSP package than the ADP195.
A second variant of the provided solution is to create a free fall detection system. This function can be implemented using the inactivity interrupt. When an object is in true free-fall, acceleration on all axes is 0 g. Thus, free-fall detection is achieved by looking for acceleration on all axes to fall below a certain threshold (close to 0 g) for a certain amount of time.
The ADXL362 functions as a free-fall detector by setting the inactivity threshold (300 mg to 600 mg) and inactivity time (150 ms to 350 ms). The register setting for these values varies based on the g-range setting of the device.
This circuit uses the EVAL-SDP-CS1Z System Demonstration Platform (SDP) evaluation board and the EVAL-CN0274-SDPZ circuit board. The two boards have 120-pin mating connectors, allowing for the quick setup and evaluation of the performance of the circuit.
Because the ADXL362 requires a relatively small amount of power in both the asleep and awake states, it is possible to power the EVAL-CN0274-SDPZ from the digital data lines coming out of the EVAL-SDP-CS1Z.
The following equipment is needed:
Load the evaluation software by placing the CN0274 Evaluation Software CD into the PC. Using My Computer, locate the drive that contains the evaluation software CD and open the Readme file. Follow the instructions contained in the Readme file for installing and using the evaluation software.
See Figure 4 for the test setup block diagram, and the EVALCN0274- SDPZ-SCH-RevA.pdf file for the circuit schematics. This file is contained in the CN0274 Design Support Package.
Figure 4. Test Setup Block Diagram
Connect the 120-pin connector on the CN0274 Evaluation Software to the connector on the EVAL-SDP-CS1Z. Use nylon hardware to firmly secure the two boards, using the holes provided at the ends of the 120-pin connectors.
With power to the supply off, connect a 3.0 V power supply to the J3 connector. Alternatively, Connector J2 can be used on the bottom of the PCB to power the entire circuit off two AAA batteries. Connect the USB cable supplied with the EVAL-SDP-CS1Z to the USB port on the PC. Note: Do not connect the USB cable to the mini-USB connector on the SDP board at this time.
Apply power to the J3 screw terminal or place batteries in the J2 connector on the bottom of the PCB batteries (move Jumper J6 to the left-hand position for battery operation). Launch the CN0274 Evaluation Software and connect the USB cable from the PC to the mini-USB connector on the EVAL-SDP-CS1Z.
Information and details regarding test setup and calibration, and how to use the evaluation software for data capture can be found in the software Readme file found at: www.analog.com/CN0274- UserGuide.