Autonomous Vehicle Perception Sensing
Interactive Signal Chains
RADAR Components (8)
The AD8283 is designed for low cost, low power, compact size, flexibility, and ease of use. It contains six channels of a low noise preamplifier (LNA) with a programmable gain amplifier (PGA) and an antialiasing filter (AAF) plus one direct-to-ADC channel, all integrated with a single 12-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC).
Each channel features a gain range of 16 dB to 34 dB in 6 dB increments and an ADC with a conversion rate of up to 80 MSPS. The combined input-referred noise voltage of the entire channel is 3.5 nV/√Hz at maximum gain. The channel is optimized for dynamic performance and low power in applications where a small package size is critical.
Fabricated in an advanced CMOS process, the AD8283 is available in a 10 mm × 10 mm, RoHS-compliant, 72-lead LFCSP. It is specified over the automotive temperature range of −40°C to +105°C.
- Automotive radar
Adaptive cruise control
Blind spot detection
The AD8285 is designed for low cost, low power, compact size, flexibility, and ease of use. It contains four channels of a low noise preamplifier (LNA) with a programmable gain amplifier (PGA) and an antialiasing filter (AAF) plus one direct-to-ADC channel, all integrated with a single 12-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC).
Each channel features a gain range of 16 dB to 34 dB in 6 dB increments and an ADC with a conversion rate of up to 72 MSPS. The combined input referred noise voltage of the entire channel is 3.5 nV/√Hz at maximum gain. The channel is optimized for dynamic performance and low power in applications where a small package size is critical.
Fabricated in an advanced complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process, the AD8285 is available in a 10 mm × 10 mm, RoHS compliant, 72-lead LFCSP that is specified over the automotive temperature range of −40°C to +105°C.
- Automotive radar
- Adaptive cruise control
- Collision avoidance
- Blind spot detection
- Self parking
- Electronic bumper
The ADA8282 is designed for applications that require low cost, low power, compact size, and flexibility. The ADA8282 has four parallel channels, each including a low noise preamplifier (LNA) and a programmable gain amplifier (PGA). The LNA and PGA combine to form a signal chain that features a gain range of 18 dB to 36 dB in 6 dB increments with a guaranteed minimum bandwidth of 5 MHz.
Using the highest power settings, the combined input referred voltage noise of the combined LNA and PGA channel is 3.4 nV/√Hz at maximum gain.
The ADA8282 can be configured in four power modes that trade off power and noise performance to optimize the performance according to the end application.
Fabricated in an advanced complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process, the ADA8282 is available in a 5 mm × 5 mm, RoHS-compliant, 32-lead LFCSP. It is specified over the automotive temperature range of −40°C to +125°C.
- Automotive radar
Adaptive cruise control
Blind spot detection
The ADAR7251 is a 16-bit, 4-channel, simultaneous sampling analog-to-digital converter (ADC) designed especially for applications such as automotive LSR-FMCW or FSK-FMCW radar systems. Each of the four channels contains a low noise amplifier (LNA), a programmable gain amplifier (PGA), an equalizer, a multibit Σ-Δ ADC, and a decimation filter.
The front-end circuitry is designed to allow direct connection to an MMIC output with few external passive components. The ADAR7251 eliminates the need for a high order antialiasing filter, driver op amps, and external bipolar supplies. The ADAR7251 also offers precise channel-to-channel drift matching.
The ADAR7251 features an on-chip phase-locked loop (PLL) that allows a range of clock frequencies for flexibility in the system. The CONV_START input and DATA_READY output signals synchronize the ADC with an external ramp for applications such as FSK-FMCW radar.
The ADAR7251 supports serial and parallel interfaces at programmable sample rates from 300 kSPS to 1.8 MSPS, as well as easy connections to digital signal processors (DSPs) and microcontroller units (MCUs) in the system.
- Automotive LSR systems
- Data acquisition systems
The ADF4159 consists of a low noise digital phase frequency detector (PFD), a precision charge pump, and a programmable reference divider. The Σ-Δ-based fractional interpolator allows programmable fractional-N division. The INT and FRAC registers define an overall N divider as N = INT + (FRAC/225).
The ADF4159 can be used to implement frequency shift keying (FSK) and phase shift keying (PSK) modulation. Frequency sweep modes are also available to generate various waveforms in the frequency domain, for example, sawtooth and triangular waveforms. Sweeps can be set to run automatically, or each step manually triggered by an external pulse. The ADF4159 features cycle slip reduction circuitry, which enables faster lock times without the need for modifications to the loop filter.
Control of all on-chip registers is via a simple 3-wire interface. The ADF4159 operates with an analog power supply in the range of 2.7 V to 3.45 V and a digital power supply in the range of 1.62 V to 1.98 V. The device can be powered down when not in use.
- Communications infrastructure
- Communications test equipment
- FMCW radars
The ADF5901 is a 24 GHz Tx monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) with an on-chip, 24 GHz VCO with PGA and dual Tx channels for radar systems. The on-chip, 24 GHz VCO generates the 24 GHz signal for the two Tx channels and the LO output. Each Tx channel contains a power control circuit. There is also an on-chip temperature sensor.
Control of all the on-chip registers is through a simple 4-wire interface.
The ADF5901 comes in a compact 32-lead, 5 mm × 5 mm LFCSP package.
- Automotive radars
- Industrial radars
- Microwave radar sensors
- Industrial sensors
- Precision instrumentation
- Tank level sensors
- Smart sensors
- Door opening
- Energy saving
- Commercial sensors: object detection and tracking
- Cars, boats, aircraft, and UAVs (drones): collision avoidance
- Intelligent transportation systems: intelligent traffic monitoring and control
- Surveillance and security
The ADF5904 is a 4-channel, 24 GHz, receiver downconverter. Each channel contains a single-ended RF input with an on-chip balun followed by a differential low noise amplifier (LNA) and a downconverter mixer with differential output buffers. The RF LO path also has an on-chip balun.
Control of the on-chip registers is through a simple 3-wire interface.
The ADF5904 comes in a compact 32-lead, 5 mm × 5 mm LFCSP package.
- Automotive radars
- Industrial radars
- Microwave (µW) radar sensors
The processor offers performance up to 400 MHz, as well as lowest power consumption at <100mW. Produced with a low-power and low-voltage design methodology, they provide world-class power management and performance.
By integrating a rich set of industry-leading system peripherals, large on-chip memory & a high speed external memory interface, this Blackfin processor is the platform of choice for next-generation applications that require RISC-like programmability, multimedia support, and leading-edge signal processing in one integrated package. These applications span a wide array of markets, from automotive systems to embedded industrial, instrumentation, video/image analysis, biometric and control applications.
RADAR Evaluation Boards
UG-1201 describes the evaluation board for the ADA4625-1 low noise, fast settling, single supply, rail-to-rail output (RRO), junction field effect transistor (JFET) op amp in an 8-lead small outline integrated circuit (SOIC) package with an exposed pad. The design of this evaluation board emphasizes simplicity and ease of use. This evaluation board is a 2-layer board that accommodates edge mounted SubMiniature version A (SMA) connectors on the inputs and outputs. The SMA connectors allow efficient connection to test equipment or other circuitry.
The evaluation board ground plane, components placement, and power supply bypassing are optimized for maximum circuit flexibility and performance. The exposed pad of the ADA4625-1 is connected to the ground plane on the evaluation board to enhance thermal and noise performance. The evaluation board uses a combination of surface mount technology (SMT) component case sizes 0603 and 0805, with the exception of the bypass capacitors, Capacitor C3 and Capacitor C5, which have a maximum standard size of 1206. The evaluation board also features a variety of unpopulated resistor and capacitor pads, which provide the user with multiple choices and extensive flexibility for different application circuits and configurations, such as active loop filters, transimpedance amplifiers (TIAs), and charge amplifiers.
The ADA4625-1 data sheet covers the specifications and details of the device operation and application circuit configurations and guidance. Consult the data sheet in conjunction with UG-1201 for a better understanding of the device operation, especially when powering up the evaluation board for the first time.
The 24 GHz radar sensor platform called Demorad is a novel microwave radar evaluation platform solution with out-of-the-box software examples and easy startup of radar sensor all done within minutes. Demorad platform enables rapid product prototyping aimed at R&D interests in investigating radar and developing radar sensor products that can measure real-time information such as target/object presence, its movement, angular position, velocity, and range from the sensor.
The Demorad platform provides both hardware and software that allows for very fast evaluation and development of 24 GHz radar without the need to have RF microwave and signal chain system expertize, and significantly reduces development time and system expertize during product development phases.
A high performance RF and analog full signal chain including DSP processing, that is, an RF to bits solution is provided that allows for flexible processing on raw acquisition data, allowing radar experiments on a state-of-the art level hardware in a very short time.
Full software support of 24 GHz radar ICs using a software graphical user interface (GUI) and in DSP radar support function libraries with added capability to write raw data for post processing on PC using Matlab tools.
Figure 1. Demorad 24GHz Evaluation Software Window showing Range-Doppler mode.
The Demorad uses ADI’s 24 GHz, multichannel radar solution. The sensor consists of a single PCB with 2 transmitter/4 receiver antennas on the front side connected to the 24 GHz RF chipset and data acquisition ADC’s and DSP on the reverse side. This forms the basis for a reference design that customers can use to build their final product design.
Figure 2. Demorad full signal chain.
The Demorad uses FMCW radar to detect range and velocity of objects up to 200 m away with a resolution of approximately 75 cm. The field of view (FOV) is approximately 120° in azimuth and 15° in elevation based on the antenna array design. By combining antennas as used in digital beam forming (DBF), the Demorad uses DBF to calculate angular information in the FOV.
Figure 3. Demorad system setup.
- Traffic monitoring and car parking
- UAV/drone collision avoidance and altimeters
- Monitoring and security systems
LIDAR Components (10)
The AD9094 is an 8-bit, 1 GSPS, quad analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The device has an on-chip buffer and a sample-and-hold circuit designed for low power, small size, and ease of use. The device is designed to sample wide bandwidth analog signals up to 1.4 GHz. The AD9094 is optimized for wide input bandwidth, a high sampling rate, high works linearity, and low power in a small package.
The quad-ADC cores feature multistage, differential pipelined architecture with integrated output error correction logic. Each ADC features wide bandwidth inputs that support a variety of user-selectable input ranges. An integrated voltage reference facilitates design considerations. The analog inputs and clock signals are differential inputs.
Users can configure each pair of intermediate frequency (IF) receiver outputs onto either one or two lanes of JESD204B Subclass 1 or Subclass 0, high speed, serialized outputs, depending on the sample rate and the acceptable lane rate of the receiving logic device. Multiple device synchronization is supported through the SYSREF±, SYNCINB±AB, and SYNCINB±CD input pins.
The AD9094 has flexible power-down options that allow significant power savings when desired. To program the power down options, use the 1.8 V capable, serial port interface (SPI).
The AD9094 is available in a Pb-free, 72-lead, lead frame chip scale package (LFCSP) and is specified over a junction temperature range of −40°C to +105°C. This product may be protected by one or more U.S. or international patents.
Note that throughout the data sheet, multifunction pins, such as PDWN/STBY, are referred to either by the entire pin name or by a single function of the pin, for example, PDWN, when only that function is relevant.
- Low power consumption per channel.
- JESD204B lane rate support up to 15 Gbps.
- Wide, full power bandwidth supports IF sampling of signals up to 1.4 GHz.
- Buffered inputs ease filter design and implementation.
- Four integrated wideband decimation filters and numerically controlled oscillator (NCO) blocks supporting multiband receivers.
- Programmable fast overrange detection.
- On-chip temperature diode for system thermal management.
- Laser imaging, detection, and ranging (LIDAR)
- Digital oscilloscope (DSO)
- Ultrawideband satellite receivers
The LTC6560 is a low-noise, transimpedance amplifier (TIA) with 220MHz bandwidth. The LTC6560’s low noise, high transimpedance and low power dissipation are ideal for LIDAR receivers using avalanche photodiodes (APDs). The LTC6560 features 74kΩ transimpedance gain and 30µA linear input current range. Using an input circuit with a total input capacitance of 2pF, the input current noise density is 4.8pA/√Hz at 200MHz. With lower capacitance, noise and bandwidth improve further. The LTC6560 operates from a single 5V supply and consumes only 90mW. Utilizing the LTC6560’s output MUX, multiple LTC6560 devices can be combined to a single output. The LTC6560’s fast overload recovery and fast output MUXing make it well suited for LIDAR receivers with multiple APDs. Its single-ended output can swing 2VP-P on a 100Ω load. Its low impedance op amp style output has been designed to drive back-terminated 50Ω cables.
The LTC6560 is packaged in a compact 3mm × 3mm 16-pin leadless QFN package with an exposed pad for thermal management and low inductance.
- LIDAR Receiver
- Industrial Imaging
The LTC6561 is a low-noise four-channel, transimpedance amplifier (TIA)with 220MHz bandwidth. The LTC6561 multi-channel transimpedance amplifier’s low noise, high transimpedance, and low power dissipation are ideal for LIDAR receivers using Avalanche Photodiodes (APDs). The amplifier features 74kΩ transimpedance gain and 30µA linear input current range. Using an APD input circuit with a total capacitance of 2pF, the input current noise density is 4.5pA/√Hz at 200MHz. With lower capacitance, noise and bandwidth improve further. Only a 5V single supply is needed and the device consumes only 200mW. Utilizing the internal 4-to-1 MUX along with the LTC6561’s output MUX; multiple 4-channel LTC6561 devices can be combined to directly interface with 8, 12, 16 and 32-channel APD arrays. The LTC6561’s fast overload recovery and fast channel switchover make it well suited for LIDAR receivers with multiple APDs. Its single-ended output can swing 2VP-P on a 100Ω load. While its low impedance op amp-style output can drive back-terminated 50Ω cables.
The LTC6561 is packaged in a compact 4mm × 4mm 24-pin leadless QFN package with an exposed pad for thermal management and low inductance.
- LIDAR Receiver
- Industrial Imaging
The LT8331 is a current mode DC/DC converter with a 140V, 0.5A switch operating from a 4.5V to 100V input. With a unique single feedback pin architecture, it is capable of boost, SEPIC, flyback or inverting configurations. Burst Mode operation consumes as low as 6μA quiescent current to maintain high efficiency at very low output currents, while keeping typical output ripple below 20mV.
The internally-compensated current mode architecture results in stable operation over a wide range of input and output voltages and programmable switching frequencies between 100kHz to 500kHz. A SYNC/MODE pin allows synchronization to an external clock. It can also be used to select between burst or pulse-skipping modes of operation. For increased efficiency, a BIAS pin can accept a second input to supply the INTVCC regulator. Additional features include frequency foldback and programmable soft-start for controlling inductor current during start-up.
The LT8331 is available in a thermally-enhanced MSOP package with four pins removed for high voltage spacings.
- Industrial and Automotive
- Medical Diagnostic Equipment
- Portable Electronics
The AD7908 / AD7918 / AD7928 are, respectively, 8-bit, 10-bit, and 12-bit, high speed, low power, 8-channel, successive approximation ADCs. The parts operate from a single 2.7 V to 5.25 V power supply and feature throughput rates up to 1 MSPS. The parts contain a low noise, wide bandwidth track-and-hold amplifier that can handle input frequencies in excess of 8 MHz.
The conversion process and data acquisition are controlled using CS and the serial clock signal, allowing the device to easily interface with microprocessors or DSPs. The input signal is sampled on the falling edge of CS and conversion is also initiated at this point. There are no pipeline delays associated with the part.
The AD7908 / AD7918 / AD7928 use advanced design techniques to achieve very low power dissipation at maximum throughput rates. At maximum throughput rates, the AD7908 / AD7918 / AD7928 consume 2 mA maximum with 3 V supplies; with 5 V supplies, the current consumption is 2.7 mA maximum.
Through the configuration of the control register, the analog input range for the part can be selected as 0 V to REFIN or 0 V to 2 × REFIN, with either straight binary or twos complement output coding. The AD7908 / AD7918 / AD7928 each feature eight single-ended analog inputs with a channel sequencer to allow a preprogrammed selection of channels to be converted sequentially.
The conversion time for the AD7908 / AD7918 / AD7928 is determined by the SCLK frequency, which is also used as the master clock to control the conversion.
- High Throughput with Low Power Consumption. The AD7908 / AD7918 / AD7928 offer up to 1 MSPS throughput rates. At the maximum throughput rate with 3 V supplies, the AD7908 / AD7918 / AD7928 dissipate just 6 mW of power maximum.
- Eight Single-Ended Inputs with a Channel Sequencer. A sequence of channels can be selected, through which the ADC cycles and converts on.
- Single-Supply Operation with VDRIVE Function. The AD7908 / AD7918 / AD7928 operate from a single 2.7 V to 5.25 V supply. The VDRIVE function allows the serial interface to connect directly to either 3 V or 5 V processor systems independent of AVDD.
- Flexible Power/Serial Clock Speed Management. The conversion rate is determined by the serial clock, allowing the conversion time to be reduced through the serial clock speed increase. The parts also feature various shutdown modes to maximize power efficiency at lower throughput rates. Current consumption is 0.5 μA max when in full shutdown.
- No Pipeline Delay. The parts feature a standard successive approximation ADC with accurate control of the sampling instant via a CS input and once off conversion control.
The AD5450 / AD5451 / AD5452 / AD5453 are CMOS 8-/10-/12-/14-bit current output digital-to-analog converters (DACs), respectively. These devices operate from a 2.5 V to 5.5 V power supply, making them suited to several applications, including battery-powered applications.
As a result of manufacture on a CMOS submicron process, these DACs offer excellent 4-quadrant multiplication characteristics of up to 12 MHz.
These DACs use a double-buffered, 3-wire serial interface that is compatible with SPI®, QSPI™, MICROWIRE™, and most DSP interface standards. Upon power-up, the internal shift register and latches are filled with 0s, and the DAC output is at zero scale.
The applied external reference input voltage (VREF) determines the full-scale output current. These parts can handle ±10 V inputs on the reference, despite operating from a single-supply power supply of 2.5 V to 5.5 V. An integrated feedback resistor (RFB) provides temperature tracking and full-scale voltage output when combined with an external current-to-voltage precision amplifier.
The AD5450 / AD5451 / AD5452 / AD5453 DACs are available in small 8-lead TSOT, and the AD5452 / AD5453 are also available in MSOP packages. The AD5453 also comes in 8-lead LFSCP.
- Portable battery-powered applications
- Waveform generators
- Analog processing
- Instrumentation applications
- Programmable amplifiers and attenuators
- Digitally controlled calibration
- Programmable filters and oscillators
- Composite video
- Gain, offset, and voltage trimming
- Qualified for automotive applications
The AD5662, a member of the nanoDAC family, is a low power, single, 16-bit buffered voltage-out DAC that operates from a single 2.7 V to 5.5 V supply and is guaranteed monotonic by design.
The AD5662 requires an external reference voltage to set the output range of the DAC. The part incorporates a power-on reset circuit that ensures the DAC output powers up to 0 V (AD5662x-1) or to midscale (AD5662x-2), and remains there until a valid write takes place. The part contains a power-down feature that reduces the current consumption of the device to 480 nA at 5 V and provides software-selectable output loads while in power-down mode.
The low power consumption of this part in normal operation makes it ideally suited to portable battery-operated equipment. The power consumption is 0.75 mW at 5 V, going down to 2.4 μW in power-down mode.
The AD5662’s on-chip precision output amplifier allows rail-to-rail output swing to be achieved. For remote sensing applications, the output amplifier’s inverting input is available to the user.
The AD5662 uses a versatile 3-wire serial interface that operates at clock rates up to 30 MHz, and is compatible with standard SPI®, QSPI™, MICROWIRE™, and DSP interface standards.
- 16-bit DAC—12-bit accuracy guaranteed.
- Available in 8-lead SOT-23 and 8-lead MSOP packages.
- Low power. Typically consumes 0.42 mW at 3 V and 0.75 mW at 5 V.
- Power-on reset to zero scale or to midscale.
- 10 μs max settling time.
- Process control
- Data acquisition systems
- Portable battery-powered instruments
- Digital gain and offset adjustment
- Programmable voltage and current sources
- Programmable attenuators
The LT8614 step-down regulator features Silent Switcher architecture designed to minimize EMI emissions while delivering high efficiency at frequencies up to 3MHz. Assembled in a 3mm × 4mm QFN, the monolithic construction with integrated power switches and inclusion of all necessary circuitry yields a solution with a minimal PCB footprint. An ultralow 2.5μA quiescent current—with the output in full regulation— enables applications requiring highest efficiency at very small load currents. Transient response remains excellent and output voltage ripple is below 10mVP-P at any load, from zero to full current.
The LT8614 allows high VIN to low VOUT conversion at high frequency with a fast minimum top switch on-time of 30ns. Operation is safe in overload even with a saturated inductor.
Essential features are included and easy to use: An open-drain PG pin signals when the output is in regulation. The SYNC pin allows clock synchronization and choice of Burst Mode operation or pulse-skipping mode. Soft-start and tracking functionality is accessed via the TR/SS pin. An accurate enable threshold can be set using the EN/UV pin and a resistor at the RT pin programs switch frequency.
- Automotive and Industrial Supplies
- General Purpose Step-Down
- GSM Power Supplies
The ADXL313 is a small, thin, low power, 3-axis accelerometer with high resolution (13-bit) measurement up to ±4g. Digital output data is formatted as 16-bit twos complement and is accessible through either a serial port interface (SPI) (3-wire or 4-wire) or I2C digital interface.
The ADXL313 is well suited for car alarm or black box applications. It measures the static acceleration of gravity in tilt-sensing applications, as well as dynamic acceleration resulting from motion or shock. Its high resolution (1024 LSB/g) and low noise (150 μg/√Hz) enable resolution of inclination changes of as little as 0.1°. A built-in FIFO facilitates using oversampling techniques to improve resolution to as little as 0.025° of inclination.
Several built-in sensing functions are provided. Activity and inactivity sensing detects the presence or absence of motion and whether the acceleration on any axis exceeds a user-set level. These functions can be mapped to interrupt output pins. An integrated 32-level FIFO can be used to store data to minimize host processor intervention, resulting in reduced system power consumption.
Low power modes enable intelligent motion-based power management with threshold sensing and active acceleration measurement at extremely low power dissipation.
The ADXL313 is supplied in a small, thin 5 mm × 5 mm × 1.45 mm, 32-lead LFCSP package and is pin compatible with the ADXL312 accelerometer device.
- Car alarms
- Hill start aid (HSA) systems
- Electronic parking brakes
- Data recorders (black boxes)
The ADIS16497 is a complete inertial system that includes a triaxis gyroscope and a triaxis accelerometer. Each inertial sensor in the ADIS16497 combines industry leading iMEMS® technology with signal conditioning that optimizes dynamic performance. The factory calibration characterizes each sensor for sensitivity, bias, alignment, and linear acceleration (gyroscope bias). As a result, each sensor has its own dynamic compensation formulas that provide accurate sensor measurements.
The ADIS16497 provides a simple, cost effective method for integrating accurate, multiaxis inertial sensing into industrial systems, especially when compared with the complexity and investment associated with discrete designs. All necessary motion testing and calibration are part of the production process at the factory, greatly reducing system integration time. Tight orthogonal alignment simplifies inertial frame alignment in navigation systems. The serial peripheral interface (SPI) and register structure provide a simple interface for data collection and configuration control.
The footprint and connector system of the ADIS16497 enable a simple upgrade from the ADIS16375, ADIS16480, ADIS16485, ADIS16488A, and ADIS16490. The ADIS16497 is available in an aluminum package that is approximately 47 mm × 44 mm × 14 mm and includes a standard connector interface.
- Precision instrumentation, stabilization
- Guidance, navigation, control
- Avionics, unmanned vehicles
- Precision autonomous machines, robotics