BGM (Blood Glucose Meter) Solutions
The ADuCM355 is an on-chip system that controls and measures electrochemical sensors and biosensors. The ADuCM355 is an ultralow power, mixed-signal microcontroller based on the Arm® Cortex™-M3 processor. The device features current, voltage, and impedance measurement capability.
The ADuCM355 features a 16-bit, 400 kSPS, multichannel successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with input buffers, built-in antialias filter (AAF), and programmable gain amplifier (PGA). The current inputs include three transimpedance amplifiers (TIA) with programmable gain and load resistors for measuring different sensor types. The analog front end (AFE) also contains two low power amplifiers designed specifically for potentiostat capability to maintain a constant bias voltage to an external electrochemical sensor. The noninverting inputs of these two amplifiers are controlled by on-chip, dual output digital-to-analog converters (DACs). The analog outputs include a high speed DAC and output amplifier designed to generate an ac signal.
The ADC operates at conversion rates up to 400 kSPS with an input range of −0.9 V to +0.9 V. An input mux before the ADC allows the user to select an input channel for measurement. These input channels include three external current inputs, multiple external voltage inputs, and internal channels. The internal channels allow diagnostic measurements of the internal supply voltages, die temperature, and reference voltages.
Two of the three voltage DACs are dual output, 12-bit string DACs. One output per DAC controls the noninverting input of a potentiostat amplifier, and the other controls the noninverting input of the TIA.
The third DAC (sometimes referred to as the high speed DAC) is designed for the high power TIA for impedance measurements. The output frequency range of this DAC is up to 200 kHz.
A precision 1.82 V and 2.5 V on-chip reference source is available. The internal ADC and voltage DAC circuits use this on-chip reference source to ensure low drift performance for all peripherals.
The ADuCM355 integrates a 26 MHz Arm Cortex-M3 processor, which is a 32-bit reduced instruction set computer (RISC) machine. The Arm Cortex-M3 processor also has a flexible multichannel direct memory access controller (DMA) supporting two independent serial peripheral interface (SPI) ports, universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART), and I2C communication peripherals. The ADuCM355 has 128 kB of nonvolatile flash/EE memory and 64 kB of single random access memory (SRAM) integrated on-chip.
The digital processor subsystem is clocked from a 26 MHz on-chip oscillator. The oscillator is the source of the main digital die system clock. Optionally, a 26 MHz phase-locked loop (PLL) can be used as the digital system clock. This clock can be internally subdivided so that the processor operates at a lower frequency and saves power. A low power, internal 32 kHz oscillator is available and can clock the timers. The ADuCM355 includes three general-purpose timers, a wake-up timer (which can be used as a general-purpose timer), and a system watchdog timer.
The analog subsystem has a separate 16 MHz oscillator used to clock the ADC, DACs, and other digital logic on the analog die. The analog die also contains a separate 32 kHz, low power oscillator to clock a watchdog timer on the analog die. Both the 32 kHz oscillator and this watchdog are independent from the digital die oscillators and system watchdog timer.
A range of communication peripherals can be configured as required in a specific application. These peripherals include UART, I2C, two SPI ports, and general-purpose input/output (GPIO) ports. The GPIOs, combined with the general-purpose timers, can be combined to generate a pulse-width modulation (PWM) type output.
Nonintrusive emulation and program download are supported via the serial wire debug port (SW-DP) interface.
The ADuCM355 operates from a 2.8 V to 3.6 V supply and is specified over a temperature range of −40°C to +85°C. The chip is packaged in a 72-lead, 6 mm × 5 mm land grid array (LGA) package.
Note that, throughout this data sheet, multifunction pins, such as P0.0/SPI0_CLK, are referred to either by the entire pin name or by a single function of the pin, for example, P0.0, when only that function is relevant.
- Gas detection
- Food quality
- Environmental sensing (air, water, and soil)
- Blood glucose meters
- Life sciences and biosensing analysis
- Bioimpedance measurements
- General Amperometry, voltammetry, and impedance spectroscopy functions
- Environmental Monitoring Solutions
The AD5940 and AD5941 are high precision, low power analog front ends (AFEs) designed for portable applications that require high precision, electrochemical-based measurement techniques, such as amperometric, voltammetric, or impedance measurements. The AD5940/AD5941 is designed for skin impedance and body impedance measurements, and works with the AD8233 AFE in a complete bioelectric or biopotential measurement system. The AD5940/AD5941 is designed for electrochemical toxic gas sensing.
The AD5940/AD5941 consist of two high precision excitation loops and one common measurement channel, which enables a wide capability of measurements of the sensor under test. The first excitation loop consists of an ultra low power, dual-output string, digital-to-analog converter (DAC), and a low power, low noise potentiostat. One output of the DAC controls the noninverting input of the potentiostat, and the other output controls the noninverting input of the transimpedance amplifier (TIA). This low power excitation loop is capable of generating signals from dc to 200 Hz.
The second excitation loop consists of a 12-bit DAC, referred to as the high speed DAC. This DAC is capable of generating high frequency excitation signals up to 200 kHz.
The AD5940/AD5941 measurement channel features a 16-bit, 800 kSPS, multichannel successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with input buffers, a built in antialias filter, and a programmable gain amplifier (PGA). An input multiplexer (mux) in front of the ADC allows the user to select an input channel for measurement. These input channels include multiple external current inputs, external voltage inputs, and internal channels. The internal channels allow diagnostic measurements of the internal supply voltages, die temperature, and reference voltages.
The current inputs include two TIAs with programmable gain and load resistors for measuring different sensor types. The first TIA, referred to as the low power TIA, measures low bandwidth signals. The second TIA, referred to as the high speed TIA, measures high bandwidth signals up to 200 kHz.
An ultra low leakage, programmable switch matrix connects the sensor to the internal analog excitation and measurement blocks. This matrix provides an interface for connecting external transimpedance amplifier resistors (RTIAs) and calibration resistors. The matrix can also be used to multiplex multiple electronic measurement devices to the same wearable electrodes.
A precision 1.82 V and 2.5 V on-chip reference source is available. The internal ADC and DAC circuits use this on-chip reference source to ensure low drift performance for the 1.82 V and 2.5 V peripherals.
The AD5940/AD5941 measurement blocks can be controlled via direct register writes through the serial peripheral interface (SPI) interface, or, alternatively, by using a preprogrammable sequencer, which provides autonomous control of the AFE chip. 6 kB of static random access memory (SRAM) is partitioned for a deep data first in, first out (FIFO) and command FIFO. Measurement commands are stored in the command FIFO and measurement results are stored in the data FIFO. A number of FIFO related interrupts are available to indicate when the FIFO is full.
A number of general-purpose inputs/outputs (GPIOs) are available and controlled using the AFE sequencer. The AFE sequencer allows cycle accurate control of multiple external sensor devices.
The AD5940/AD5941 operate from a 2.8 V to 3.6 V supply and are specified over a temperature range of −40°C to +85°C. The AD5940 is packaged in a 56-lead, 3.6 mm × 4.2 mm WLCSP. The AD5941 is packaged in a 48-lead LFCSP.
- Electrochemical measurements
- Electrochemical gas sensors
- Potentiostat/amperometric/voltammetry/cyclic voltammetry
- Bioimpedance applications
- Skin impedance
- Body impedance
- Continuous glucose monitoring
- Battery impedance
- Environmental Monitoring Solutions
- Building Safety and Security Solutions
The AD5940 is specifically designed for high precision analysis of electrochemical cells. This evaluation kit is designed to easily configure the AD5940 to perform electrochemical measurements on a typical electrochemical cell. The evaluation kit includes the EVAL-ADICUP3029 Arm® Cortex™-M3 microcontrollerbased Arduino Uno form factor board, the EVAL-AD5940ELCZ daughter board and custom micro USB to crocodile cables to connect the hardware to various chemistry setups.