Electroencephalogram (EEG) Measurement
The AD8220 is the first single-supply, JFET input instrumentation amplifier available in an MSOP package. Designed to meet the needs of high performance, portable instrumentation, the AD8220 has a minimum common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR) of 86 dB at dc and a minimum CMRR of 80 dB at 5 kHz for G = 1. Maximum input bias current is 10 pA and typically remains below 300 pA over the entire industrial temperature range. Despite the JFET inputs, the AD8220 typically has a noise corner of only 10 Hz.
With the proliferation of mixed-signal processing, the number of power supplies required in each system has grown. The AD8220 is designed to alleviate this problem. The AD8220 can operate on a ±18 V dual supply, as well as on a single +5 V supply. Its rail-to-rail output stage maximizes dynamic range on the low voltage supplies common in portable applications. Its ability to run on a single 5 V supply eliminates the need to use higher voltage, dual supplies. The AD8220 draws a maximum of 750 μA of quiescent current, making it ideal for battery powered devices.
Gain is set from 1 to 1000 with a single resistor. Increasing the gain increases the common-mode rejection. Measurements that need higher CMRR when reading small signals benefit when the AD8220 is set for large gains.
A reference pin allows the user to offset the output voltage. This feature is useful when interfacing with analog-to-digital converters.
The AD8220 is available in an MSOP that takes roughly half the board area of an SOIC. Performance for the A and B grade is specified over the industrial temperature range of −40°C to +85°C, and the W grade is specified over the automotive temperature range of −40°C to +125°C.
- Medical instrumentation
- Precision data acquisition
- Transducer interfaces
Many traditional operational amplifier pinouts have a supply pin that is next to the noninverting input. A guard trace must be routed between these pins to avoid leakage currents much larger than the bias current of a FET input op amp. Guard traces can be routed between pins for large packages, such as DIP or even SOIC; however, the board area consumed by these packages is prohibitive for many modern applications. The AD8244 solves this problem with a unique pinout that physically separates the high impedance inputs from the low impedance supplies and outputs of the other buffers. This configuration simplifies guarding while reducing board space, allowing high performance and high density in the same design.
The AD8244 design is focused on solving problems specific to buffers. This includes close channel-to-channel matching which allows channels of the AD8244 to be used in differential signal chains with minimal error. With its low voltage noise, wide supply range, and high precision, the AD8244 is also flexible enough to provide high performance anywhere a unity-gain buffer is needed, even with low source resistance.
The AD8244 is specified over the industrial temperature range of −40°C to +85°C. It is available in a 10-lead MSOP package.
- Biopotential electrodes
- Medical instrumentation
- High impedance sensor conditioning
- Photodiode amplifiers
The AD8422 is a high precision, low power, low noise, rail-to-rail instrumentation amplifier that delivers the best performance per unit microampere in the industry. The AD8422 processes signals with ultralow distortion performance that is load independent over its full output range.
The AD8422 is the third generation development of the industry standard AD620. The AD8422 employs new process technologies and design techniques to achieve higher dynamic range and lower errors than its predecessors, while consuming less than one-third of the power. The AD8422 uses the high performance pinout introduced by the AD8221.
Very low bias current makes the AD8422 error-free with high source impedance, allowing multiple sensors to be multiplexed to the inputs. Low voltage noise and low current noise make the AD8422 an ideal choice for measuring a Wheatstone bridge.
The wide input range and rail-to-rail output of the AD8422 bring all of the benefits of a high performance in-amp to single-supply applications. Whether using high or low supply voltages, the power savings make the AD8422 an excellent choice for high channel count or power sensitive applications.
The AD8422 uses robust input protection that ensures reliability without sacrificing noise performance. The AD8422 has high ESD immunity, and the inputs are protected from continuous voltages up to 40 V from the opposite supply rail.
A single resistor sets the gain from 1 to 1000. The reference pin can be used to apply a precise offset to the output voltage.
The AD8422 is specified from −40°C to +85°C for the 8-lead MSOP and the 8-lead SOIC_N and from −40°C to +125°C for the 8-lead LFCSP.
- Medical instrumentation
- Industrial process controls
- Strain gages
- Transducer interfaces
- Precision data acquisition systems
- Channel-isolated systems
- Portable instrumentation
The AD7768/AD7768-4 are 8-channel and 4-channel 24-bit, simultaneous sampling, sigma-delta (Σ-Δ) analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) with power scaling and 110.8 kHz bandwidth. The devices have a Σ-Δ modulator and digital filter per channel, which enables synchronized sampling of ac and dc signals.
The AD7768/AD7768-4 achieve 108 dB dynamic range at a maximum input bandwidth of 110.8 kHz, combined with typical performance of ±2 ppm integral nonlinearity (INL), ±50 μV offset error, and ±30 ppm gain error.
The AD7768/AD7768-4 user can trade off input bandwidth, output data rate, and power dissipation, and select one of three power modes to optimize for noise targets and power consumption. The flexibility of the AD7768/AD7768-4 allows them to become reusable platforms for low power dc and high performance ac measurement modules.
The AD7768/AD7768-4 have three modes: fast mode (256 kSPS maximum, 110.8 kHz input bandwidth, 51.5 mW per channel), median mode (128 kSPS maximum, 55.4 kHz input bandwidth, 27.5 mW per channel) and low power mode (32 kSPS maximum, 13.8 kHz input bandwidth, 9.375 mW per channel).
The AD7768/AD7768-4 offer extensive digital filtering capabilities, such as a wideband, low ±0.005 dB pass-band ripple, antialiasing low-pass filter with sharp roll-off, and 105 dB attenuation at the Nyquist frequency.
Frequency domain measurements can use the wideband linear phase filter. This filter has a flat pass band (±0.005 dB ripple) from dc to 102.4 kHz at 256 kSPS, from dc to 51.2 kHz at 128 kSPS, or from dc to 12.8 kHz at 32 kSPS.
The AD7768/AD7768-4 also offer sinc response via a sinc5 filter, a low latency path for low bandwidth, and low noise measurements. The wideband and sinc5 filters can be selected and run on a per channel basis.
Within these filter options, the user can improve the dynamic range by selecting from decimation rates of ×32, ×64, ×128, ×256, ×512, and ×1024. The ability to vary the decimation filtering optimizes noise performance to the required input bandwidth.
Embedded analog functionality on each ADC channel makes design easier, such as a precharge buffer on each analog input that reduces analog input current and a precharge reference buffer per channel reduces input current and glitches on the reference input terminals.
The device operates with a 5 V AVDD1A and AVDD1B supply, a 2.25 V to 5.0 V AVDD2A and AVDD2B supply, and a 2.5 V to 3.3 V or 1.8 V IOVDD supply (see the 1.8 V IOVDD Operation section for specific requirements for operating at 1.8 V IOVDD).
The device requires an external reference; the absolute input reference voltage range is 1 V to AVDD1 − AVSS.
The specified operating temperature range is −40°C to +105°C. The device is housed in a 10 mm × 10 mm, 64-lead low profile quad flat package (LQFP) with a 12 mm × 12 mm printed circuit board (PCB) footprint.
- Data acquisition systems: USB/PXI/Ethernet
- Instrumentation and industrial control loops
- Audio test and measurement
- Vibration and asset condition monitoring
- 3-phase power quality analysis
- High precision medical electroencephalogram (EEG)/electromyography (EMG)/electrocardiogram (ECG)
Precision Medium Bandwidth
The AD7177-2 is a 32-bit low noise, fast settling, multiplexed, 2-/4-channel (fully/pseudo differential) Σ-Δ analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for low bandwidth inputs. It has a maximum channel scan rate of 10 kSPS (100 µs) for fully settled data. The output data rates range from 5 SPS to 10 kSPS.
The AD7177-2 integrates key analog and digital signal conditioning blocks to allow users to configure an individual setup for each analog input channel in use. Each feature can be user selected on a per channel basis. Integrated true rail-to-rail buffers on the analog inputs and external reference inputs provide easy to drive high impedance inputs. The precision 2.5 V low drift (2 ppm/°C) band gap internal reference (with output reference buffer) adds embedded functionality to reduce external component count.
The digital filter allows simultaneous 50 Hz and 60 Hz rejection at a 27.27 SPS output data rate. The user can switch between different filter options according to the demands of each channel in the application. The ADC automatically switches through each selected channel. Further digital processing functions include offset and gain calibration registers, configurable on a per channel basis.
The device operates with a 5 V AVDD1 supply, or with ±2.5 V AVDD1/AVSS, and 2 V to 5 V AVDD2 and IOVDD supplies. The specified operating temperature range is −40°C to +105°C. The AD7177-2 is available in a 24-lead TSSOP package.
- Process control: PLC/DCS modules
- Temperature and pressure measurement
- Medical and scientific multichannel instrumentation
Precision Narrow Bandwidth
The EVAL-AD7177-2SDZ evaluation kit features the AD7177-2, a 32-bit, 10 kSPS analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with integrated rail-to rail-analog input buffers, on-board power supply regulation, and an external amplifier section for amplifier evaluation. A 7 V to 9 V ac-to-dc adapter is regulated to 5 V and 3.3 V, which supply the AD7177-2 and support components.
The EVAL-AD7177-2SDZ evaluation board connectsto the USB port of a PC via the EVAL-SDP-CB1Z SDP controller board.
The AD7177-2 evaluation software fully configures the AD7177-2 device functionality via a user accessible register interface and provides dc time domain analysis in the form of waveform graphs, histograms, and associated noise analysis for ADC performance evaluation.
Full specifications for the AD7177-2 are available in the product data sheet, which should be consulted in conjunction with this user guide UG-849 when using the evaluation board.
Rarely Asked Questions
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What Are the Most Important Timing Factors for Low Power Precision Signal Chain Applications? Part 1
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