Point of Care (PoC) Diagnostics
Interactive Signal Chains
The MAX66250 secure authenticator combines FIPS 202-compliant Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA-3) challenge and response authentication with secured EEPROM.
The device provides a core set of cryptographic tools derived from integrated blocks including a SHA-3 engine, 256 bits of secured user EEPROM, a decrement-only counter and a unique 64-bit ROM identification number (ROM ID). The unique ROM ID is used as a fundamental input parameter for cryptographic operations and serves as an electronic serial number within the application. The device communicates over an RF interface compliant with ISO/IEC 15693.
- Medical Tools/Accessories Authentication and Calibration
- Printer Cartridge Configuration and Monitoring
- System Intellectual Property Protection
- NFC-Enabled Embedded Systems
- Asset Tracking
- Access Control
- Driver Identification
The ADPD1080/ADPD1081 are highly efficient, photometric front ends, each with an integrated 14-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and a 20-bit burst accumulator that works with flexible light emitting diode (LED) drivers. The ADPD1080/ADPD1081 stimulate an LED and measures the corresponding optical return signal. The data output and functional configuration occur over a 1.8 V I2C interface on the ADPD1080 or a serial port interface (SPI) on the ADPD1081. The control circuitry includes flexible LED signaling and synchronous detection.
The analog front end (AFE) features rejection of signal offset and corruption due to modulated interference commonly caused by ambient light without the need for optical filters or dc cancellation circuitry that requires external control.
Couple the ADPD1080/ADPD1081 with a low capacitance photodiode of <100 pF for optimal performance. The ADPD1080/ADPD1081 can be used with any LED. The ADPD1080 is available in a 16-ball, 2.46 mm × 1.4 mm WLCSP and a 28-lead, 4 mm × 4 mm LFCSP. The SPI only version, ADPD1081, is available in a 17-ball, 2.46 mm × 1.4 mm WLCSP.
- Wearable health and fitness monitors
- Clinical measurements, for example, SpO2
- Industrial monitoring
- Background light measurements
- Building Safety and Security Solutions
- Smoke Detection
The MAX86171 is an ultra-low-power optical data acquisition system with both transmit and receive channels. On the transmitter side, the MAX86171 has nine LED driver output pins, programmable from three high-current, 8-bit LED drivers. On the receiver side, MAX86171 has two low-noise charge integrating front-ends that each include independent 19.5 bit ADCs and best-in-class ambient light cancellation (ALC) circuits, producing the highest performing integrated optical data acquisition system on the market today.
Due to its low power consumption, compact size, ease and flexibility of use, the MAX86171 is ideal for a wide variety of optical sensing applications such as pulse oximetry and heart rate detection.
The MAX86171 operates on a 1.8V main supply voltage and a 3.1V to 5.5V LED driver supply voltage. The device supports both I2C and SPI compatible interfaces in a fully autonomous way. The device has a large 256-word built-in FIFO. The MAX86171 is available in a compact 28-bump WLP package.
- Wearable Devices for Fitness, Wellness, and Medical Applications
- Clinical Accuracy
- Suitable for Wrist, Finger, Ear, and Other Locations
- Optimized Performance to Detect:
- Optical Heart Rate
- Heart Rate Variability
- Oxygen Saturation (SpO2)
- Body Hydration
- Muscle and Tissue Oxygen Saturation (SmO2 and StO2)
- Maximum Oxygen Consumption (VO2 max)
The AD5940 and AD5941 are high precision, low power analog front ends (AFEs) designed for portable applications that require high precision, electrochemical-based measurement techniques, such as amperometric, voltammetric, or impedance measurements. The AD5940/AD5941 is designed for skin impedance and body impedance measurements, and works with the AD8233 AFE in a complete bioelectric or biopotential measurement system. The AD5940/AD5941 is designed for electrochemical toxic gas sensing.
The AD5940/AD5941 consist of two high precision excitation loops and one common measurement channel, which enables a wide capability of measurements of the sensor under test. The first excitation loop consists of an ultra low power, dual-output string, digital-to-analog converter (DAC), and a low power, low noise potentiostat. One output of the DAC controls the noninverting input of the potentiostat, and the other output controls the noninverting input of the transimpedance amplifier (TIA). This low power excitation loop is capable of generating signals from dc to 200 Hz.
The second excitation loop consists of a 12-bit DAC, referred to as the high speed DAC. This DAC is capable of generating high frequency excitation signals up to 200 kHz.
The AD5940/AD5941 measurement channel features a 16-bit, 800 kSPS, multichannel successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with input buffers, a built in antialias filter, and a programmable gain amplifier (PGA). An input multiplexer (mux) in front of the ADC allows the user to select an input channel for measurement. These input channels include multiple external current inputs, external voltage inputs, and internal channels. The internal channels allow diagnostic measurements of the internal supply voltages, die temperature, and reference voltages.
The current inputs include two TIAs with programmable gain and load resistors for measuring different sensor types. The first TIA, referred to as the low power TIA, measures low bandwidth signals. The second TIA, referred to as the high speed TIA, measures high bandwidth signals up to 200 kHz.
An ultra low leakage, programmable switch matrix connects the sensor to the internal analog excitation and measurement blocks. This matrix provides an interface for connecting external transimpedance amplifier resistors (RTIAs) and calibration resistors. The matrix can also be used to multiplex multiple electronic measurement devices to the same wearable electrodes.
A precision 1.82 V and 2.5 V on-chip reference source is available. The internal ADC and DAC circuits use this on-chip reference source to ensure low drift performance for the 1.82 V and 2.5 V peripherals.
The AD5940/AD5941 measurement blocks can be controlled via direct register writes through the serial peripheral interface (SPI) interface, or, alternatively, by using a preprogrammable sequencer, which provides autonomous control of the AFE chip. 6 kB of static random access memory (SRAM) is partitioned for a deep data first in, first out (FIFO) and command FIFO. Measurement commands are stored in the command FIFO and measurement results are stored in the data FIFO. A number of FIFO related interrupts are available to indicate when the FIFO is full.
A number of general-purpose inputs/outputs (GPIOs) are available and controlled using the AFE sequencer. The AFE sequencer allows cycle accurate control of multiple external sensor devices.
The AD5940/AD5941 operate from a 2.8 V to 3.6 V supply and are specified over a temperature range of −40°C to +85°C. The AD5940 is packaged in a 56-lead, 3.6 mm × 4.2 mm WLCSP. The AD5941 is packaged in a 48-lead LFCSP.
- Electrochemical measurements
- Electrochemical gas sensors
- Potentiostat/amperometric/voltammetry/cyclic voltammetry
- Bioimpedance applications
- Skin impedance
- Body impedance
- Continuous glucose monitoring
- Battery impedance
The ADuCM355 is an on-chip system that controls and measures electrochemical sensors and biosensors. The ADuCM355 is an ultralow power, mixed-signal microcontroller based on the Arm® Cortex™-M3 processor. The device features current, voltage, and impedance measurement capability.
The ADuCM355 features a 16-bit, 400 kSPS, multichannel successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with input buffers, built-in antialias filter (AAF), and programmable gain amplifier (PGA). The current inputs include three transimpedance amplifiers (TIA) with programmable gain and load resistors for measuring different sensor types. The analog front end (AFE) also contains two low power amplifiers designed specifically for potentiostat capability to maintain a constant bias voltage to an external electrochemical sensor. The noninverting inputs of these two amplifiers are controlled by on-chip, dual output digital-to-analog converters (DACs). The analog outputs include a high speed DAC and output amplifier designed to generate an ac signal.
The ADC operates at conversion rates up to 400 kSPS with an input range of −0.9 V to +0.9 V. An input mux before the ADC allows the user to select an input channel for measurement. These input channels include three external current inputs, multiple external voltage inputs, and internal channels. The internal channels allow diagnostic measurements of the internal supply voltages, die temperature, and reference voltages.
Two of the three voltage DACs are dual output, 12-bit string DACs. One output per DAC controls the noninverting input of a potentiostat amplifier, and the other controls the noninverting input of the TIA.
The third DAC (sometimes referred to as the high speed DAC) is designed for the high power TIA for impedance measurements. The output frequency range of this DAC is up to 200 kHz.
A precision 1.82 V and 2.5 V on-chip reference source is available. The internal ADC and voltage DAC circuits use this on-chip reference source to ensure low drift performance for all peripherals.
The ADuCM355 integrates a 26 MHz Arm Cortex-M3 processor, which is a 32-bit reduced instruction set computer (RISC) machine. The Arm Cortex-M3 processor also has a flexible multichannel direct memory access controller (DMA) supporting two independent serial peripheral interface (SPI) ports, universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART), and I2C communication peripherals. The ADuCM355 has 128 kB of nonvolatile flash/EE memory and 64 kB of single random access memory (SRAM) integrated on-chip.
The digital processor subsystem is clocked from a 26 MHz on-chip oscillator. The oscillator is the source of the main digital die system clock. Optionally, a 26 MHz phase-locked loop (PLL) can be used as the digital system clock. This clock can be internally subdivided so that the processor operates at a lower frequency and saves power. A low power, internal 32 kHz oscillator is available and can clock the timers. The ADuCM355 includes three general-purpose timers, a wake-up timer (which can be used as a general-purpose timer), and a system watchdog timer.
The analog subsystem has a separate 16 MHz oscillator used to clock the ADC, DACs, and other digital logic on the analog die. The analog die also contains a separate 32 kHz, low power oscillator to clock a watchdog timer on the analog die. Both the 32 kHz oscillator and this watchdog are independent from the digital die oscillators and system watchdog timer.
A range of communication peripherals can be configured as required in a specific application. These peripherals include UART, I2C, two SPI ports, and general-purpose input/output (GPIO) ports. The GPIOs, combined with the general-purpose timers, can be combined to generate a pulse-width modulation (PWM) type output.
Nonintrusive emulation and program download are supported via the serial wire debug port (SW-DP) interface.
The ADuCM355 operates from a 2.8 V to 3.6 V supply and is specified over a temperature range of −40°C to +85°C. The chip is packaged in a 72-lead, 6 mm × 5 mm land grid array (LGA) package.
Note that, throughout this data sheet, multifunction pins, such as P0.0/SPI0_CLK, are referred to either by the entire pin name or by a single function of the pin, for example, P0.0, when only that function is relevant.
- Gas detection
- Food quality
- Environmental sensing (air, water, and soil)
- Blood glucose meters
- Life sciences and biosensing analysis
- Bioimpedance measurements
- General Amperometry, voltammetry, and impedance spectroscopy functions
DeepCover® embedded security solutions cloak sensitive data under multiple layers of advanced physical security to provide the most secure key storage possible.
The DeepCover Secure Authenticator (MAX66240) is a transponder IC that combines an ISO/IEC 15693 and ISO 18000-3 Mode 1-compatible RF front-end, a FIPS 180-based SHA-256 engine, and 4096 bits of user EEPROM in a single chip. A bidirectional security model enforces two-way authentication between a host system and the MAX66240. Each device has its own guaranteed unique 64-bit ROM ID that is factory programmed into the chip. This ROM ID is used as a fundamental input parameter for cryptographic operations and serves as an electronic serial number within the application.
- Access Control
- Asset Tracking
- Medical Sensor Authentication and Calibration
- Printer Cartridge Configuration and Monitoring
- System Intellectual Property Protection
The DS28E16 secure authenticator combines FIPS202-compliant Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA-3) challenge and response authentication with secured EEPROM.
The device provides a core set of cryptographic tools derived from integrated blocks including a SHA-3 engine, 256 bits of secured user EEPROM, a decrement-only counter and a unique 64-bit ROM identification number (ROM ID). The unique ROM ID is used as a fundamental input parameter for cryptographic operations and serves as an electronic serial number within the application. The device communicates over the single-contact 1-Wire® bus. The communication follows the 1-Wire protocol with the ROM ID acting as node address in the case of a multidevice 1-Wire network.
- Accessory and Peripheral Secure Authentication
- Battery Authentication and Charge Cycle Tracking
- Medical Tools/Accessories Authentication and Calibration
Featured Evaluation Boards
The ADuCM355 on-chip system provides the features needed to bias and to measure a range of different electrochemical sensors. The EVAL-ADuCM355QSPZ allows users to evaluate the performance of the ADuCM355 when implementing a range of different electrochemical techniques, including chronoamperometry, voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS).
Complete specifications for the ADuCM355 are available in the ADuCM355 data sheet, which must be consulted in conjunction with the EVAL-ADuCM355QSPZ user guide when using the EVAL-ADuCM355QSPZ.
The AD5940 is specifically designed for high precision analysis of electrochemical cells. This evaluation kit is designed to easily configure the AD5940 to perform electrochemical measurements on a typical electrochemical cell. The evaluation kit includes the EVAL-ADICUP3029 Arm® Cortex™-M3 microcontrollerbased Arduino Uno form factor board, the EVAL-AD5940ELCZ daughter board and custom micro USB to crocodile cables to connect the hardware to various chemistry setups.
Featured Reference Designs
Optical techniques are used in a broad class of liquid analysis techniques. Phenomena such as absorbance, fluorescence, scattering, and backscatter are used to detect chemical composition, pH, turbidity, and other chemical and physical properties. Optical techniques have several advantages, namely, they are contact free, not destructive, high precision, and high sensitivity; however, they often require complicated electronics to compensate for electrical and physical errors. Also, defining the optical path and eliminating ambient light interference requires careful enclosure design.
The circuit shown in Figure 1 is a reconfigurable multiparameter optical liquid measurement platform capable of performing colorimetry, turbidity, and fluorometry. The design minimizes complexity by using a highly integrated, multimodal sensor front end capable of simultaneously driving four LEDs, and synchronously measuring four pairs of photodiodes at a flexible sampling rate. Furthermore, the front end has on-chip digital filters and high ambient light rejection that allow the platform to operate with full performance regardless of environmental lighting conditions.
Despite benchtop instrument performance, the system is adaptable to portable and handheld applications. The LED current is configurable to be as low as 2 mA. With a 200 nA standby current and a flexible output data rate, the system achieves ultralow power consumption. Furthermore, the main board is designed in an Arduino-compatible shield form factor for rapid prototyping with common processor platforms.
The platform supports a wide range of LED sources from infrared to ultraviolet wavelengths, and the four independent light paths can be simultaneously measured. Additionally, two of these light paths support perpendicular measurement capabilities for applications like fluorescence and turbidity.
Each light path includes a measurement and reference photodiode that samples the intensity of the incident beam, allowing errors due to LED current source accuracy, LED drift, and mechanical imperfections to be nearly eliminated.
Many important liquid analyses like pH rely on electrochemistry, a branch of chemistry that characterizes the behavior of reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions by measuring the transfer of electrons from one reactant to another. Electrochemical techniques can be used directly or indirectly to detect several important parameters that affect water quality, including chemical indicators, biological and bacteriological indicators and even some low level contaminants like heavy metals. Many of these indicative measurements are pertinent to determining important quality parameters of the tested analyte.
The circuit shown in Figure 1 is a modular sensing platform that allows the user to design a flexible electrochemical water quality measurement solution. Its high level of integration enables an electrochemical measurement platform applicable to a variety of water quality probes including pH, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), and conductivity cells.
The system allows up to four probes to be connected at one time for different water quality measurements.
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