The measurement technology that the CERN developers drew on for the HL-LHC has been long in the making. Measurement begins in the analog domain, and here, the important parameters of high-performance systems include sensitivity, low noise, linearity, resolution, and drift performance over time.
At the extreme end of scientific endeavor, the demands on measurement technology are also extreme. The production of ultra-high-performance analog technology calls for a remarkable combination of assets, capabilities, and intellectual property built up over many decades of research and investment.
Today’s leading-edge analog solutions are the result of innovations in electronics circuit technology. This includes developing special semiconductor materials alongside the familiar silicon, and wafer fabrication using specialized processes optimized for low noise, high sensitivity, and other features demanded in ultra high precision measurement applications.