A SEISMIC SHIFT IN RADIO
The technology at the heart of this seismic shift is the radio. 5G wireless radio networks mark a fundamental departure from 4G and earlier wireless network architectures. 4G networks are very rigidly constructed and typically include a macro base station and an inflexible, core network that largely uses proprietary hardware. They also employ a traditional transmission model in which RF signals are radiated to all users within a sector.
By comparison, 5G networks incorporate many times the number of radios than 4G is capable of supporting and utilize advanced beamforming techniques that can target specific users and locations to yield a five-fold improvement in spectral efficiency. Of course, boosting radio density without a commensurate increase in size and power means more complexity.