Layout For Precision Op Amps

The incredible offset and drift performance of modern precision op amps can easily be degraded by poor PCB layout techniques. By utilizing a few simple layout techniques, the performance of the IC can be maintained.

Thermocouple Effects

In order to achieve accuracy on the microvolt level, thermocouple effects must be considered. Any connection of dissimilar metals forms a thermoelectric junction and generates a small temperature-dependent voltage. Also known as the Seebeck Effect, these thermal EMFs can be the dominant error source in low-drift circuits.

Connectors, switches, relay contacts, sockets, resistors, and solder are all candidates for significant thermal EMF generation. Even junctions of copper wire from different manufacturers can generate thermal EMFs of 200nV/°C, which is over 13 times the maximum drift specification of the LTC2057. Figures 4 and 5 illustrate the potential magnitude of these voltages and their sensitivity to temperature.

Figure 1. Thermal EMF Generated by Two Copper Wires From Different Manufacturers.

In order to minimize thermocouple-induced errors, attention must be given to circuit board layout and component selection. It is good practice to minimize the number of junctions in the amplifier’s input signal path and avoid connectors, sockets, switches, and relays whenever possible. If such components are required, they should be selected for low thermal EMF characteristics. Furthermore, the number, type, and layout of junctions should be matched for both inputs with respect to thermal gradients on the circuit board. Doing so may involve deliberately introducing dummy junctions to offset unavoidable junctions.

Figure 2. Solder Copper Thermal EMFs.

Air currents can also lead to thermal gradients and cause significant noise in measurement systems. It is important to prevent airflow across sensitive circuits. Doing so will often reduce thermocouple noise substantially. A summary of techniques can be found in Figure 3.

Figure 3. Techniques for Minimizing Thermocouple Induced Errors.

Leakage Effects

Leakage currents into high impedance signal nodes can easily degrade measurement accuracy of sub-nanoamp signals. High voltage and high temperature applications are especially susceptible to these issues. Quality insulation materials should be used, and insulating surfaces should be cleaned to remove fluxes and other residues. For humid environments, surface coating may be necessary to provide a moisture barrier.

Figure 4.

Board leakage can be minimized by encircling the input connections with a guard ring operated at a potential very close to that of the inputs. The ring must be tied to a low impedance node. For inverting configurations, the guard ring should be tied to the potential of the positive input (+IN). For non-inverting configurations, the guard ring should be tied to the potential of the negative input (–IN). In order for this technique to be effective, the guard ring must not be covered by solder mask. Ringing both sides of the printed circuit board may be required.

Figure 5. Example Layout of Non Inverting Amplifier with Leakage Guard Ring.

For low-leakage applications, the LTC2057 is available in an MS10 package with a special pinout that facilitates the layout of guard ring structures. The pins adjacent to the inputs have no internal connection, allowing a guard ring to be routed through them.



Figure 6. Example Layout of Inverting Amplifier with Leakage Guard Ring.


Glen Brisebois

Glen Brisebois

Glen Brisebois是硅谷ADI公司信号调理部门的一名应用工程师。他曾就读于加拿大阿尔伯塔大学,获得物理学和电气工程学士学位。他曾与特拉普派教徒和加尔都西会教徒一起隐修数年,但无法停止对电路的思考。现在,他拥有幸福的婚姻和孩子的陪伴。他从事大量电路相关工作,但有时也会提倡ADC。他在EDN杂志上发表的文章“高阻抗传感器的信号调理”荣获2006年最佳论文奖。


Jeremy Wong