Overvoltage Protector (OVP) refers to a circuit that protects downstream circuitry from damage due to excessive voltage.
An OVP monitors the DC voltage coming from an external power source, such as an off-line power supply or a battery, and protects the rest of the connected circuitry using one of two methods: a crowbar clamp circuit or a series-connected switch.
The crowbar short-circuits or clamps the supply line to limit the voltage, possibly triggering other forms of protection such as a fuse.
The series-connected switch uses a MOSFET or transistor connected as a switch in series with the supply line. During an overvoltage condition, the OVP circuit rapidly shuts off the MOSFET and disconnects the downstream circuit.
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