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Application Notes

AN-1334: Impact of Adding a Neutral Attenuation Network in a 3P4W Wye System

A 3-phase 4-wire (3P4W) wye configuration includes three phase wires and one neutral wire. Each phase voltage is measured with respect to the neutral. The phase voltages are typically 220 V rms or 110 V rms, with each phase voltage phase-shifted 120 with respect to the others. Attenuation networks are commonly used on each of the 3-phase wires to step down the 220 V/110 V signals into signals small enough to enter the ADExxxx metering IC. The neutral wire is typically used as the ground reference. In certain cases, however, the neutral cannot be treated as the ground reference. In such situations, an attenuation network is added to the neutral, thus forming a large resistance between neutral and ground. This 11-page Application Note analyzes the performance impact of adding a neutral attenuation network in a 3P4W wye system.

AN-1332: Architecting a Direct, 3-Phase Energy Meter with Shunts Using the ADE7912/ADE7913

The ADE7912/ADE7913 3-channel, isolated, Σ-Δ analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) target polyphase energy metering applications using shunt current sensors. This 11-page Application Note provides in depth explanations on how to use the ADE7912/ADE7913 when developing a direct, 3-phase meter with shunts.

AN-1329: Noise Reduction Network for Adjustable Low Dropout Regulators

Noise is extremely important to designers of high-performance analog circuits. This is especially true for high-speed clocks, analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), digital-to-analog converters (DACs), voltage-controlled oscillators (VCOs), and phase-locked loops (PLLs). The key to reducing the output voltage noise is keeping the ac closed-loop gain close to unity without compromising the ac performance and dc closed-loop gain. This 8-page Application Note describes how to use a simple RC network to reduce the output noise of an adjustable low dropout regulator (LDO). Experimental data for several LDOs is presented to demonstrate the efficacy of this simple circuit technique. Although noise reduction (NR) is the primary focus, test data also shows the effect on power supply rejection ratio (PSRR) and transient load response.

AN-1321: Common-Mode Transients in Current Sense Applications

Current sense amplifiers are used in a variety of applications, such as motor or solenoid control, load current monitoring, and fault detection. In such applications, it is typical for the input common-mode voltage to swing from ground to a certain high-side supply. While a user may assume that the input common-mode swings are limited to this high-side supply, transient voltages must be considered. The result of these transients is that a supposed low-voltage application tends to appear as a high-voltage application, and the current sense amplifier must be robust enough to handle these occurrences. This 2-page Application Note explains how to choose a suitable amplifier.

AN-1313: Configuring the AD5422 to Combine Output Current and Output Voltage to a Single Output Pin

Configurable output ranges reduce the need for multiple product variants to support various range options. This circuit uses the AD5422 16-bit, serial input, unipolar/bipolar voltage and current output DAC to provide voltage output ranges of 0 V to 5 V, 0 V to 10 V, −5 V to +5 V, or −10 V to +10 V with a 10% overrange capability; a current output, accessed from a separate pin, can provide 4 mA to 20 mA, 0 mA to 20 mA, or 0 mA to 24 mA ranges. The current and voltage output pins can be connected together by adding a buffer amplifier or switch to prevent a current leakage path through an internal resistor when the device is in current output mode.

AN-1312: Applying the ADE7912/ADE7913 to 4 mA to 20 mA DC Measurements

This Application Note describes how to apply the ADE7912/ADE7913 isolated sigma-delta ADCs to measure analog 4-mA to 20-mA current loops. Current loops implement a robust sensor standard, so many industrial process control applications still employ them for analog signaling. The signaling current flows through all components, with the same current flowing even if the terminations are less than perfect, and all loop components drop voltage due to the current flowing through them. The signaling current is not affected by these voltage drops as long as the supply voltage is greater than the sum of the drops around the loop at the maximum current.

AN-1306: ADP1050 and ADP1051 EEPROM Programming and Calibration in the Power Supply Manufacturing Environment

This 11-page Application Note specifies the EEPROM programming and calibration for the ADP1050 and ADP1051 digital controllers for isolated power supplies during power supply manufacturing. First, the hex file used for EEPROM programming is generated by the GUI software in the power supply development stage. Second, using the generated hex file, the EEPROM can be programmed. Finally, the calibration procedure is presented.

AN-1304: ADE7912/ADE7913 DC Measurement Performance

The ADE7912 and ADE7913 isolated 3-channel, Σ-Δ ADCs target polyphase energy metering applications using shunt current sensors. The devices can be used to sense dc signals, however, so this 5-page Application Note presents their dc measurement performance. In energy metering applications, the current channel is used to sense the voltage across shunt current sensors and the voltage channels are used to measure voltages across resistor dividers. From a dc measurement perspective, this separation is not meaningful because every channel can be used to sense dc signals. This application note describes the performance when dc signals are applied at the inputs of the three Σ-Δ ADCs.

AN-1289: Using the AD5755 and Similar Dynamic Power Control DACs in Applications Without Dynamic Power Control

This 7-page Application Note describes using the AD5755 and other similar industrial DACs in applications that do not require the dynamic power control (DPC) feature. DPC operates by sensing the load on the current output pin and supplying only the power that is required. To achieve this, the DAC controls a dc-to-dc converter to step up a 5-V supply to between 7.4 V and 29.5 V. DPC is particularly useful in systems with wide load ranges, including a short-circuit to ground, where all power generated by the supply is dissipated on chip. In non-DPC systems, this results in higher IC and system temperatures. Low-power applications may not require dynamic power control. In these cases, the dc-to-dc converter can be excluded from the design, reducing the number of external components. This is useful for space-constrained applications that require four channels. Instead of using the dc-to-dc converter, an external PMOS can limit on-chip power dissipation, or the DAC can be powered directly, with all power dissipated on chip.

Circuits from the Lab

CN0357: Low Noise, Single-Supply, Toxic Gas Detector, Using an Electrochemical Sensor with Programmable Gain TIA for Rapid Prototyping

This single supply, low noise, portable gas detector, uses an Alphasense CO-AX electrochemical sensor to detect carbon monoxide. Electrochemical sensors offer several advantages for instruments that detect or measure the concentration of many toxic gases. Most sensors are gas specific and have usable resolutions under one part per million (ppm) of gas concentration. The circuit uses the ADA4528-2 dual auto-zero amplifier, which has a 2.5 V maximum offset voltage at room temperature and an industry leading 5.6 V/√Hz voltage noise density, and the AD5270-20 programmable rheostat, allowing for rapid prototyping of different gas sensor systems without changing the bill of materials. The ADR3412 precision, low noise, micropower reference establishes the 1.2 V common-mode, pseudo ground reference voltage with 0.1% accuracy and 8 ppm/C drift.

CN0355: Low Power, Temperature Compensated Bridge Signal Conditioner and Driver

This complete, low-power signal conditioner for bridge-type sensors includes a temperature compensation channel. Ideal for a variety of industrial pressure sensors and load cells that operate with drive voltages of between 5 V and 15 V, this circuit can process full-scale signals from approximately10 mV to 1 V using the internal programmable gain amplifier (PGA) of the 24-bit, sigma-delta (Σ-Δ) ADC. The entire circuit uses only three ICs and requires only 1 mA, excluding the bridge current. A ratiometric technique ensures accuracy and stability without a voltage reference.

CN-0350: 12-bit, 1-MSPS, Single-Supply, Two-Chip Data-Acquisition System for Piezoelectric Sensors

This 12-bit, 1-MSPS data-acquisition system uses only two active devices. The system processes charge input signals from piezoelectric sensors using a single 3.3-V supply and has a total error of less than 0.25% FSR after calibration over a 10C temperature range, making it ideal for a wide variety of laboratory and industrial measurements. The circuits small footprint makes this combination an industry-leading solution for data-acquisition systems where accuracy, speed, cost, and size play a critical role.

CN0348: 16-Bit Single-Supply Buffered Voltage Output Digital-to Analog Conversion with Less Than 1 LSB Integral and Differential Nonlinearity

This complete single-supply,16-bit buffered voltage output DAC maintains 1 LSB integral and differential nonlinearity by utilizing a CMOS DAC followed by an innovative amplifier that has no crossover distortion. The circuit eliminates the crossover nonlinearity associated with most rail-to-rail op amps that can be as high as 4 LSBs to 5 LSBs in a 16-bit system. This industry leading solution is ideal for industrial process control and instrumentation applications that require a compact, single-supply, low-cost, highly linear 16-bit buffered voltage source. Total power dissipation for the three active devices is less than 25 mW typical when operating on a single 6-V supply.

CN0343: Ultrasonic Distance Measurement

This self-contained distance sensor utilizes an ultrasonic transmitter and sensitive analog receiver in conjunction with a precision analog microcontroller to provide distance measurements. Unlike complicated PLL-based receivers, the sensor uses a sensitive window comparator circuit, thereby minimizing real estate and cost. The approximate range is from 50 cm to 10 m with a resolution of about 2 cm. Temperature compensation is provided by the integrated temperature sensor and ADC contained in the microcontroller. For sensing the levels of thick liquids or foamy water, the ultrasonic level sensor is a better choice than capacitance, reed, or float sensors. In very dusty or corrosive environments, the ultrasonic sensor is the sensor of choice.

CN0341: Magnetoresistive Linear Position Measurement

This contactless, anisotropic magnetoresistive (AMR) linear position measurement solution features 0.002-inch accuracy over a 0.5-inch range, making it ideal for applications where accurate, high-speed, non-contact length and position measurements are critical. It provides all the signal conditioning, including instrumentation amplifiers, buffers, and a 2-channel ADC, required to efficiently process the low-level AMR sensor bridge outputs. The result is an industry leading position measurement solution suitable for valve and flow measurement, machine tool speed control, motor speed measurement, and other industrial or automotive applications.

CN0337: 12-Bit, 300 kSPS, Single-Supply, Fully Isolated RTD Temperature Measurement System with 3-Wire Compensation

This completely isolated 12-bit, 300-kSPS RTD temperature measuring system uses only three active devices to process the output of a Pt100 RTD. An innovative circuit provides lead-wire compensation using a standard 3-wire connection. The circuit operates on a single 3.3-V supply. The total error after room temperature calibration is less than 0.24% FSR for a 10C change in temperature, making it ideal for a wide variety of industrial temperature measurements. Both data and power are isolated, making the circuit robust to high voltages and ground-loop interference often encountered in harsh industrial environments.

CN0336: 12-Bit, 300 kSPS, Single-Supply, Fully Isolated, Data Acquisition System for 4-20 mA Inputs

This completely isolated 12-bit, 300-kSPS data-acquisition system uses only three active devices to process 4-mA to 20-mA input signals using a single 3.3-V supply. The total error after room temperature calibration is 0.06% FSR over a 10C temperature range, making it ideal for a wide variety of industrial measurements. The small footprint makes it an industry-leading solution for 4-mA to 20-mA data acquisition systems where accuracy, speed, cost, and size play a critical role. Both data and power are isolated, making the circuit robust to high voltages and ground-loop interference often encountered in harsh industrial environments.

CN0335: 12-Bit, 300 kSPS, Single-Supply, Fully Isolated, Data Acquisition System for 10 V Inputs

This completely isolated 12-bit, 300-kSPS data acquisition system uses only three active devices to process 10-V input signals using a single 3.3-V supply. The total error after room temperature calibration is less than 0.1% FSR over a 10C temperature change, making it ideal for a wide variety of industrial measurements. Both data and power are isolated, thereby making the circuit robust to high voltages and ground-loop interference often encountered in harsh industrial environments.

CN0332: Magnetoresistive (MR) Rotational Speed Sensor

This low-cost, high-speed, single-supply magnetoresistive (MR) signal conditioner features a minimum PCB footprint. The complete signal conditioning solution amplifies the small output voltage of the magnetoresistive sensor and converts it into a digital output signal with less than 5 ns rise and fall times and approximately 100-ps rms jitter. An excellent alternative to Hall effect sensors, the circuit provides a compact, cost effective, robust solution for high-speed rotational sensing in industrial and automotive applications.

New Product Briefs

November 2014

Precision low-noise dual Operational Amplifier provides EMI and overvoltage protection

ada4177-2The ADA4177-2 dual op amp features 2-μV typ offset voltage, 1-μV/C max drift, 1-nA max input bias current, and 8-nV/√Hz typ noise. The rail-to-rail outputs provide an 8% improvement in dynamic range and are stable with capacitive loads of more than 1000 pF with no external compensation; the inputs are protected against signal excursions 32 V beyond either supply and provide 70-dB rejection for electromagnetic interference (EMI) at 1000 MHz. Applications include sensor signal conditioning, process control front-ends, and precision diode power measurement in optical and wireless transmission systems. It is useful in line powered and portable instrumentation, precision filters, voltage or current measurement, and level setting. Operating on 2.25-V to 18-V supplies, the ADA4177-2 draws 500 A per amplifier. Available in 8-lead SOIC and MSOP packages, it is specified from 40C to +125C and priced at $1.53 in 1000s.

Dual 105-MHz, low-noise, low-power, low-drift Operational Amplifier

ada4805-2The ADA4805-2 high-speed dual op amp offers rail-to-rail outputs, 125-μV maximum input offset voltage, 105-MHz unity-gain bandwidth, 160-V/μs slew rate, 5.9-nV/√Hz voltage noise, and 0.6-pA/√Hz current noise, making it ideal for low-power, high-resolution data-acquisition systems. Its 500-A quiescent current per amplifier is reduced to 3 A in shutdown mode; the output settles to 16 bits within 3 s from shutdown to fully on, allowing the amplifier to be turned off between ADC samples. The ADA4805-2 operates on a single 2.7-V to 10-V supply or dual 1.35-V to 5-V supplies. Available in an 8-lead MSOP package, it is specified from 40C to +125C and priced at $1.64 in 1000s.

Single Comparator includes accurate reference voltage

adcmp394The ADCMP394 low-power comparator with rail-to-rail inputs is ideal for use in battery powered applications. It features a common-mode input voltage range that extends 200 mV beyond the rails, 1-mV typical offset voltage across the full common-mode range, and a logic-low output when the supply voltage is less than the UVLO threshold. The 1-V 0.9% buffered reference can connect directly to the comparator inputs, serving as the trip value for precision monitoring and detection of positive voltages; or as an offset when monitoring negative voltages. Operating on a 2.3-V to 5.5-V supply, the ADCMP394 draws 34 A. Available in an 8-lead SOIC package, it is specified from 40C to +125C and priced at $0.37 in 1000s.

Isolated 16-bit Sigma-Delta Modulator with LVDS interface

ad7405The AD7405 high-performance, second-order, Σ-Δ modulator converts an analog input into a high-speed, single-bit data stream, with on-chip digital isolation based on iCoupler technology. Operating from a 5-V supply, it accepts a 250 mV (320 mV full-scale) differential input signal, making it ideally suited to monitor shunt voltages in high-voltage applications that require galvanic isolation. The analog input is continuously sampled and converted to a bit stream at up to 20 MHz. The original signal can be reconstructed with a digital filter to achieve 88-dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at 78.1 kSPS. The device provides 1250-Vpeak maximum insulation working voltage per VDE and 5-kV rms isolation per UL1577. The LVDS interface operates at 3 V to 5.5 V Available in a 16-lead SOIC package, the AD7405 is specified from 40C to +125C and priced at $3.35 in 1000s.

High temperature, 16-bit, 600-kSPS PulSAR ADC

ad7981The AD7981 PulSAR successive-approximation ADC, designed for high-temperature operation, achieves 16-bit resolution with no missing codes at a 600-kSPS sampling rate. Accepting pseudo-differential inputs with a 0 V to VREF range, it specifies 90.5-dB signal-to-noise-plus-distortion (SINAD), 102-dB total harmonic distortion (THD), and 2-LSB maximum integral nonlinearity (INL). Automatically powering down between conversions, the power consumption scales with throughput rate. The successive-approximation architecture ensures that there will be no pipeline delays; and daisy chaining allows several ADCs to share a single bus. Operating on a single 2.5-V supply, the device is compatible with 1.8-V to 5.5-V logic, consuming 4.65 mW at 600 kSPS, 70 μW at 10 ksps, and 350 nA in standby mode. Available in a 10-lead MSOP package, the AD7981 is specified from 55C to +175C. See a complete list of available high-temperature products at http://www.analog.com/hightemp.

6-channel SPI Digital Isolator with delay clock provides 5-kV isolation

adum4150The ADuM4150 6-channel SPIsolator digital isolator is optimized for isolated serial peripheral interfaces (SPIs). Based on iCoupler chip-scale transformer technology, the 12-ns propagation delay and 1-ns jitter in the CLK, MO/SI, MI/SO, and SS signals supports SPI clock rates of up to 17 MHz; a delay clock output on the master side supports 40-MHz clock rates. Two low-data-rate channels, one in each direction, support a 250-kbps data rate with 2.5-μs jitter. The devices provide 5-kV isolation and 25-kV/μs common-mode transient immunity. The power supplies on each side can range from 3.0 V to 5.5 V, allowing level-translation across the isolation barrier. Available in a 20-lead SSOP package, the ADuM4150 is specified from 40C to +125C and priced at $4.80 in 1000s.

7-channel SPI Digital Isolators provide 3.75-kV isolation

adum4151The ADuM4151/ADuM4152/ADuM4153 7-channel SPIsolator digital isolators are optimized for isolated serial peripheral interfaces (SPIs). Based on iCoupler chip-scale transformer technology, the 12-ns propagation delay and 1-ns jitter in the CLK, MO/SI, MI/SO, and SS signals supports SPI clock rates of up to 17 MHz. Three low-data-rate channelsin three different channel direction combinationssupport a 250-kbps data rate with 2.5-μs jitter. The devices provide 5-kV isolation and 25-kV/μs common-mode transient immunity. The power supplies on each side can range from 3.0 V to 5.5 V, allowing level-translation across the isolation barrier. Available in 20-lead SSOP packages, the ADuM415x are specified from 40C to +125C and priced from $3.35 in 1000s.

7-channel multiple slave SPI Digital Isolator provides 5-kV isolation

adum4154The ADuM4154 7-channel SPIsolator digital isolator is optimized for isolated serial peripheral interfaces (SPIs) that support up to four slave devices. Based on iCoupler chip-scale transformer technology, the 12-ns propagation delay and 1-ns jitter in the CLK, MO/SI, MI/SO, and SS signals supports SPI clock rates of up to 17 MHz. The isolated slave select signal propagates to the desired output through a 2-channel, 250‑kbps bus, allowing the target slave device to be changed in less than 2.5-μs. The device provides 5-kV isolation and 25-kV/μs common-mode transient immunity. The power supplies on each side can range from 3.0 V to 5.5 V, allowing level-translation across the isolation barrier. Available in a 20-lead SSOP package, the ADuM4154 is specified from 40C to +125C and priced from $3.35 in 1000s.

Ultralow-noise Linear Regulator provides 600 mA, high PSRR

adm7154The ADM7154 linear regulator operates from 2.3 V to 5.5 V and provides up to 600 mA of output current with high power supply rejection, ultralow noise, and excellent line- and load transient response with only a 10 F ceramic output capacitor. It is available in a variety of fixed output voltage options from 1.2 V to 3.3 V, with 0.9-μV rms typical output noise from 100 Hz to 100 kHz, and 1.5-nV/√Hz noise spectral density from 10 kHz to 1 MHz. Available in an 8-lead LFCSP and SOIC packages, the ADM7154 is specified from 40C to +125C and priced from $2.14 in 1000s.

Low-Dropout Regulators feature 150-mA output, very low quiescent current

adp165The ADP165/ADP166 low-dropout regulators (LDOs) operate from 2.2 V to 5.5 V and provide up to 150 mA of output current. The 120-mV dropout voltage at 150 mA load improves efficiency and allows operation over a wide input voltage range. The very low quiescent current and stable operation with tiny 1-F ceramic input and output capacitors make them ideal for battery powered and space-constrained applications. The LDOs are available in seven fixed output voltage options, ranging from 1.2 V to 3.3 V, and an adjustable output option. The ADP165 includes a switched resistor to discharge the output automatically when the LDO is disabled. The ADP166 does not include this function. Short-circuit and thermal overload protection circuits prevent damage in adverse conditions. Available in 5-lead TSOT, 6-lead LFCSP, and 4-ball WLCSP packages, the ADP165/66 are specified from 40C to +125C and priced at $0.35 in 1000s.

Ultralow-power Boost Regulator with MPPT and charge management

adp5090The ADP5090 integrated boost regulator converts dc power from photovoltaic (PV) cells or thermoelectric generators (TEGs) to charge storage elements such as batteries and capacitors, and power small electronic devices in battery-free systems. Efficiently converting harvested power in the 10 μW to 1 mW range, it features sub-μW losses. The internal cold-start circuit allows the regulator to start up with a 380 mV input voltage. Once started, the regulator operates with 100 mV to 3 V input voltages. Open circuit voltage (OCV) sensing, programmable regulation points, and maximum power point tracking (MPPT) allow extraction of the highest possible energy from the PV cell or TEG harvester. A programmable minimum OCV threshold down to 100 mV enables boost shutdown during low light conditions. The charging control function includes rechargeable energy storage protection. An optional primary cell battery can be connected and managed by an integrated power path management control block that automatically switches the power source from energy harvester, rechargeable battery, or primary cell battery. Available in 16-lead LFCSP and TSSOP packages, the ADP5090 is specified from 40C to +125C and priced at $1.99 in 1000s.

20-V, 200-mA, low-noise CMOS Low-Dropout Regulators

adp7118The ADP7112 and ADP7118 CMOS low-dropout regulators (LDOs) operate from 2.7 V to 20 V and provide up to 200 mA of output current, making them ideal for regulating high-performance analog- and mixed-signal circuits. The LDOs provide high power supply rejection, low noise, and excellent line- and load transient response with a small 2.2 F ceramic output capacitor. They are available in a variety of fixed output voltage options from 1.2 V to 5.0 V, with output noise of 11 μV rms independent of the output voltage. The output voltage can be adjusted above the initial set point with an external feedback divider, allowing output voltages from 1.2 V to VIN − VDO. The ADP7112 is available in a 6-ball WLCSP package. The ADP7118 is available in 5-lead TSOT, 6-lead LFCSP, and 8-lead SOIC packages. A user programmable soft start with an external capacitor is available on 6- and 8-lead versions. Specified from 40C to +125C, the ADP7112/ADP7118 are priced at $0.53/$0.96 in 1000s.

40-V, 200-mA, low-noise CMOS Low-Dropout Regulators

adp7142The ADP7142 CMOS low-dropout regulators (LDO) operates from 2.7 V to 40 V and provides up to 200 mA of output current, making it ideal for regulating high-performance analog- and mixed-signal circuits. The LDO provides high power supply rejection, low noise, and excellent line- and load transient response with a small 2.2 F ceramic output capacitor. It is available in a variety of fixed output voltage options from 1.2 V to 5.0 V, with output noise of 11 μV rms independent of the output voltage. The output voltage can be adjusted above the initial set point with an external feedback divider, allowing output voltages from 1.2 V to VIN − VDO. A user programmable soft start with an external capacitor is available on 6- and 8-lead versions. Available in 5-lead TSOT, 6-lead LFCSP, and 8-lead SOIC packages, the ADP7142 is specified from 40C to +125C and priced at $1.10 in 1000s.

October 2014

8-channel, 12-bit, configurable ADC/DAC with on-chip reference

ad5593rThe AD5592R, AD5592R-1, and AD5593R have eight pins that can be independently configured as digital-to-analog converter (DAC) outputs, analog-to-digital converter (ADC) inputs, digital outputs, or digital inputs. Pins configured as analog outputs are driven by 12-bit DACs, with 0 V to VREF or 0 V to 2 VREF output ranges. Pins configured as analog inputs are connected to a 12-bit, 400-kSPS ADC via an analog multiplexer. The input range is 0 V to VREF or 0 V to 2 VREF. The pins can also be configured as general-purpose digital input or output (GPIO) pins. The state of the GPIO pins can be set or read back via data registers, using a serial peripheral interface (SPI) on the AD5592R/R-1 or an I2C interface on the AD5593R. The on-chip 2.5-V, 25-ppm/C reference is turned off by default. The on-chip temperature sensor measures the die temperature, which is read back as part of an ADC read sequence. The AD5592R includes an asynchronous reset input; the AD5592-1 includes a logic compatibility input; and the AD5593R includes both inputs. Operating on a single 2.7-V to 5.5-V supply, the AD559x draw 1.6 mA at 5 V, 1.1 mA at 3 V, and 3.5 A in power-down mode. Available in 16-ball WLCSP, 16-lead LFCSP, and 16-lead TSSOP packages, they are specified from 40C to +105C and priced at $3.25 in 1000s.

Digital Power Monitor with PMBus interface

adm1294The ADM1293 and ADM1294 high-accuracy integrated digital power monitors use a 12-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) to measure current, voltage, and power. The ADC measures the primary input voltage and an auxiliary input voltage, and determines current by measuring the voltage across an external sense resistor. The digital block multiplies the current and primary input voltage to calculate power. The PMBus interface allows a master controller to read data from the device. The master controller combine this information to calculate the current, voltage, power, and energy consumption over time. The devices generate an interrupt signal when an overcurrent, overvoltage, undervoltage, or overpower condition occurs. The ADM1293 is designed for high-side monitoring over a 0-V to 20-V range. The ADM1294 is designed for low-side monitoring. Its integrated shunt regulator allows it to operate over a wide voltage range. Available in 16-lead LFCSP and 14-lead TSSOP packages, the ADM1293/ADM1294 are specified from 40C to +105C and priced from $2.79/$2.99 in 1000s.

Quad 10-Ω SPST Switches offer fault protection and detection

adg5412bfThe ADG5412F, ADG5412BF, ADG5413F, and ADG5413BF contain four independently controlled single-pole/single-throw (SPST) switches. Input signal levels up to +55 V or 55 V relative to ground are blocked in both the powered and unpowered condition. These devices incorporate an overvoltage detection feature with a digital output that indicates the operating state of the switches. The ADG5412F/BF have four switches that turn on with logic-1 inputs. The ADG5413F/BF have two switches with that turn on and two switches that turn off with logic-1 inputs. Each switch conducts equally well in both directions when on, and each switch has an input signal range that extends to the supplies. The digital inputs are compatible with 3-V logic inputs over the full operating supply range. When no power supplies are present, the switch remains in the off condition, and the switch inputs are high impedance. Under normal operating conditions, if the analog input signal on any Sx pin exceeds VDD or VSS by a threshold voltage, VT, the switch turns off. The ADG5412BF/13BF also provide protection on the Dx pins. Operating on a single 8-V to 44-V supply or dual 5-V to 22-V supplies, the ADG541x draw 1.2 mA in fault mode and 0.9 mA in normal mode. Available in 16-lead TSSOP packages, they are specified from 40C to +125C and priced at $3.96 in 1000s.

September 2014

High-temperature 2000/sec Gyroscope rejects vibration

adxrs645The ADXRS645 high-performance angular rate sensor operates at high-temperatures, using an advanced differential, quad sensor design to reject acceleration and vibration. The output voltage, ratiometric with respect to the reference supply, is proportional to the angular rate about the pitch or roll axis. The 2000/sec minimum measurement range may be extended to 5000/sec with the addition of a single external resistor. A temperature output is available for compensation techniques. Two digital self-test inputs electromechanically excite the sensor to test both it and the signal conditioning circuits. Operating on a 4.75-V to 5.25-V supply, the ADXRS645 draws 3.5 mA. Available in an 8-mm 9-mm 3-mm, 15-lead brazed package, it is specified from 40C to +175C and priced at $975.00 in 1000s.

24-bit, 250-kSPS Sigma-Delta ADC with 20-μs settling and rail-to-rail buffers

ad7175-2The AD7175-2 low-noise multiplexed Σ-Δ analog-to-digital converter accepts two fully differential or four pseudo-differential low-bandwidth inputs. The fast settling design has a maximum 50-kSPS channel scan rate and 5-SPS to 250-kSPS output data rates. The integrated analog- and digital signal conditioning blocks allow individual configuration for each input channel. True rail-to-rail buffers on the analog- and external reference inputs provide easy to drive high-impedance inputs. The precision 2.5-V low-drift (2 ppm/C) reference and reference buffer add functionality and reduce external component count. The digital filter allows simultaneous 50/60 Hz rejection at 27.27 SPS output data rate. The ADC automatically cycles through each selected channel. Further digital processing functions include offset and gain calibration. Operating with +5-V and 2.5-V supplies, the AD7175-2 dissipates 105 mW with buffers enabled, internal clock, and internal reference; 42 mW with buffers disabled, external clock, and external reference; 125 W in standby mode, and 25 W in power-down mode. Available in a 24-lead TSSOP package, it is specified from 40C to +105C and priced at $11.85 in 1000s.

7-channel multiple slave SPI Digital Isolator provides 3.75-kV isolation

adum3154The ADuM3154 7-channel SPIsolator digital isolator is optimized for isolated serial peripheral interfaces (SPIs) that support up to four slave devices. Based on iCoupler chip-scale transformer technology, the 12-ns propagation delay and 1-ns jitter in the CLK, MO/SI, MI/SO, and SS signals supports SPI clock rates of up to 17 MHz. The isolated slave select signal propagates to the desired output through a 2-channel, 250‑kbps bus, allowing the target slave device to be changed in less than 2.5-μs. The device provides 3.75-kV isolation and 25-kV/μs common-mode transient immunity. The power supplies on each side can range from 3.0 V to 5.5 V, allowing level-translation across the isolation barrier. Available in a 20-lead SSOP package, the ADuM3154 is specified from 40C to +125C and priced from $2.15 in 1000s.

Technical Articles

Miguel Usach Merino, Limit noise by exciting off-board sensors and loads, Electronic Design Europe, 2014-09-29

Anders Frederiksen, New energy efficiency rules will change motor control design, Electronics Weekly, 2014-09-26

Maithil Pachchigar, Optimizing industrial Data-Acquisition system design, EDN, 2014-09-04

Conal Watterson, Configure Controller Area Network (CAN) Bit Timing to Optimize Performance, Analog Dialogue, 2014-09-03

Colin Duggan and Denis Labrecque, How Mixed-Signal Integration With ARM Enables Smart Sensors, Design News, 2014-08-21

Wenshuai Liao and Luis Orozco, Accurate Analog Controller Optimizes High-Efficiency Li-Ion Battery Manufacturing, Analog Dialogue, 2014-08-06

Aldrick S. Limjoco, Understanding Switching Regulator Output Artifacts Expedites Power Supply Design, Analog Dialogue, 2014-08-06

Mark Cantrell and Bikiran Goswami, Isolating SPI in High Bandwidth Sensor Applications, Embedded, 2014-08-01

Luis Orozco, How to Make Precision Light Measurements with Large Area Photodiodes, Anglia Live, 2014-07-28

Maurice O'Brien, Designing Robust, Isolated I2C/PMBus Data Interfaces for Industrial, Telecommunications, and Medical Applications, Analog Dialogue, 2014-07-02

Maithil Pachchigar, Demystifying High-Performance Multiplexed Data-Acquisition Systems, Analog Dialogue, 2014-07-02

Conal Watterson, Optimizing CAN node bit timing to accommodate digital isolator propagation delays, ECN, 2014-06-17

Mark Looney, An Introduction to MEMS Vibration Monitoring, Analog Dialogue, 2014-06-04

Jess Espiritu, Complex Power-Supply Sequencing Made Easy, Analog Dialogue, 2014-06-04

Ryan Schnell, Powering the Isolated Side Of A Half-bridge Configuration, Power Electronics, 2014-05-23

Irvin Ou, Simple Circuit Allows Backward Compatibility for Digital Power Controllers, Analog Dialogue, 2014-05-05

David Rice, Dynamic power control minimises power loss, maximises temperature range, EE Times Europe, 2014-04-16

David Rice, Dynamic power control minimises power loss, maximises temperature range, EDN Europe, 2014-04-16

Jim Scarlett, Capacitance-to-Digital Converter Facilitates Level Sensing in Diagnostic Systems, Analog Dialogue, 2014-04-02

John Pitrus, Smart Meter Advances Stop Electricity Theft., Electronic Design, 2014-03-14

David Carr, Surging Across the Barrier: Digital Isolators Set the Standard for Reinforced Insulation, Power Pulse, 2014-03-10

Jakub Szymczak, Shane OMeara, Johnny S. Gealon, and Christopher Nelson De La Rama, Precision Resolver-to-Digital Converter Measures Angular Position and Velocity, Analog Dialogue, 2014-03-03

Bob Scannell, Wireless Vibration Sensors Enable Continuous And Reliable Process Monitoring, Electronic Design, 2014-02-25

Derrick Hartmann, Design tradeoffs for loop-powered transmitters, EDN, 2014-02-18

Li Ke and Colm Slattery, Electromagnetic Flow Meters Achieve High Accuracy in Industrial Applications, Analog Dialogue, 2014-02-03

Luis Orozco, Optimizing precision photodiode sensor circuit design, EE Times Europe, 2014-01-26

Mark Cantrell, Making Isolation Safety Standards Work for You, Power Systems Design, 2014-01-10

Gustavo Castro and Scott Hunt, How to Stay Out of Deep Water when Designing with Bridge Sensors, Analog Dialogue, 2014-01-06

Maurice O'Brien, Integrated Power Management Unit Simplifies FPGA-Based System, Electronics Maker, 2013-12-28

Rob Reeder, Gas Detectors to the Rescue, EDN, 2013-12-01

Eric Gaalaas, Digital Isolators Offer Easy-to-Use Isolated USB Option, EDN Network, 2013-11-09

Maurice O'Brien, Highest Power Density, Multi-Rail Power Solution For Space-Constrained Applications, Analog Dialogue, 2013-11-01

Webinars and Tutorials

Integrated Approach to SPI using Digital Isolator Technology - SPI is used for IC-to-IC communications. Unidirectional lines make it easy to isolate, but interrupts and in-band addressing for target devices are not supported, so extra isolated channels are usually required. Also, the clocking scheme links the bus speed to the propagation delay of the isolation. This webinar looks at new integrated SPI digital isolators that address these shortcomings.

Isolation in Ultra Low Power Applications - Advances in isolation technology have reduced the power consumption of digital isolators by orders of magnitude, enabling safety and convenience in low-power applications. This webcast looks at several designs that take advantage of quiescent currents less than 1 A per channel, including 4-20 mA field instrumentation, telecom interfaces referenced to negative 42-V rails, and battery operated devices.

The Spectrum of Current Sensing: From DC to Light - Current measurement is an essential part of sensor interface, control, power management, and communications. The span of current sensing is from picoamperes to kiloamperes, and from dc to gigahertz (or light, when using photodiodes). We will cover high power and motor control, 420 mA industrial communications, energy monitoring, photodiodes, isolation, and developing precision current sources. We will also show on-line tools for circuit design.

An Overview of Spectroscopy Instrumentation Techniques, Applications and Signal Chains - Spectroscopy techniques form the basis for almost all light-based measurements in laboratory and analytical instrumentation. This webcast will start with the basics, show the theory of operation, and describe some typical spectroscopy signal chains. Next, we'll explain the challenges of the primary photodiode path and finish with a discussion of the auxiliary measurements that need to be considered in the component selection and end system design.

Model-Based Design For Motor Control Development - This webcast gives an introduction to model-based design (MBD) and discusses how this design approach can speed up time-to-market and increase product quality. Topics covered will include SW tools, workflow, advanced testing and deployment of code to embedded targets; followed by a working example of how MBD can be used for motor control algorithm design, verification, and implementation.

Addressing System Integration Challenges with Isolated Industrial Interfaces - Interfaces in industrial and instrumentation applications require isolation due to their harsh operating environments. The necessary isolation can be achieved with a digital isolator or an optocoupler. Integration of that isolation into the signal chain poses several challenges at the system level, including set-up, debug, and software related pitfalls.

Galvanic Isolation for Power Supply Applications -- This seminar discusses isolation and isolation technologies in terms of signal transmission methods and isolation materials, including optocouplers and digital isolators. Ii covers isolation usage, including current sensing, gate driver, and communication functions in ac-to-dc, motor control, hybrid electrical vehicles, PV, and other power supply applications.

Solving Isolation Challenges on Your Design -- This webinar reviews designs that require isolation to protect personnel and equipment from harsh electrical and mechanical environments. It discusses interface power requirements and approaches for achieving design objectives, and addresses performance tradeoffs and applicable safety certifications for interface components.

 

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