Glossary of EE Terms


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  • Gain Bandwidth Product (GBW)

    For an amplifier with a single pole response the product of open-loop gain and the -3dB bandwidth.

  • Gain Error/Full Scale Error

    The difference between a converter’s actual and ideal output span. The actual span is determined by the output when all inputs are set to "1", minus the output when all inputs are set to "0".

  • Galvanic Isolation

    Galvanic isolation is used in controller systems where two or more channels must communicate, but their grounds may be at different potentials. It is a method of breaking ground loops by preventing unwanted current from flowing between two units sharing a ground conductor which would otherwise affect measurement results. Galvanic isolation is also used for safety; generally to protect a circuit on the system side from unknown, but potentially harmful, surges from the field side.

  • Gee (g)

    G is the unit of acceleration approximately equal to the acceleration due to gravity on the earth’s surface. 1 g = 9.8 m/s2

  • Geostationary earth orbit (GEO)

    A circular orbit 35,786 kilometers (22,236 mi) above the Earth's equator and following the direction of the Earth's rotation. An object in such an orbit has an orbital period equal to the Earth's rotational period (one sidereal day), and thus appears motionless, at a fixed position in the sky, to ground observers.

  • Glitch

    A spike caused by the skew (difference in turn-on/turn-off time) of switches or logic. Glitches are a troublesome source of error in high-speed D/A converters, and they are most prevalent at the mid-scale switching location when all digital input bits are switching. Glitch energy is specified in picovolt-seconds, which describes the area under the voltage-time curve at its worst case occurence.

  • Glitch Impulse

    Asymmetrical switching times in a DAC give rise to undesired output transients that are quantified by a glitch impulse. It is specified as the net area of the glitch in pV-s.

  • Group Delay

    Distortion resulting from non-uniform speed of transmission of the various frequency components of a signal through a transmission medium, specifically the propagation delay of a lower frequency is different from that of a higher frequency. This creates a time-related "delay distortion" error.

  • Gyroscope

    A gyroscope is a sensor that measures rate of rotation.

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