EV High Voltage Drivetrain Test
Dynamic Power Supply
Dynamic power supplies are required for many of the most critical tests in the automotive world. For example, a key aspect of an EV drivetrain is the inverter. A test-bench to develop and validate an inverter requires a battery emulator with dynamic power supply, the unit under test, and a load and power meter to measure the output. The battery emulator—a high voltage and current DC supply—must be capable of simulating dynamic transient conditions such as engine starting profile, battery voltage drop-out, and reset behavior during voltage drop (per ISO 16750-2).
Интерактивные сигнальные цепочки
The AD7606C-18 is an 18-bit, simultaneous sampling, analog-to-digital data acquisition system (DAS) with eight channels. Each channel contains analog input clamp protection, a programmable gain amplifier (PGA), a low-pass filter (LPF), and an 18-bit successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The AD7606C-18 also contains a flexible digital filter, a low drift, 2.5 V precision reference, a reference buffer to drive the ADC, and flexible parallel and serial interfaces.
The AD7606C-18 operates from a single 5 V supply and accommodates the following input ranges when sampling at throughput rates of 1 MSPS for all channels:
- Bipolar single-ended: ±12.5 V, ±10 V, ±6.25 V, ±5 V, and ±2.5 V
- Unipolar single-ended: 0 V to 12.5 V, 0 V to 10 V, and 0 V to 5 V
- Bipolar differential: ±20 V, ±12.5 V, ±10 V, and ±5 V
The input clamp protection tolerates voltages up to ±21 V. The single supply operation, on-chip filtering, and high input impedance eliminate the need for external driver op amps, which require bipolar supplies. For applications with lower throughput rates, the AD7606C-18 flexible digital filter can be used to improve noise performance.
In hardware mode, the AD7606C-18 is fully compatible with the AD7608 and AD7609. In software mode, the following advanced features are available:
- Analog input range selectable per channel with added ranges available
- High bandwidth mode (220 kHz) selectable per channel
- Additional oversampling options with an oversampling ratio up to 256
- System gain, system offset, and system phase calibration, per channel
- Analog input open circuit detector
- Diagnostic multiplexer
- Monitoring functions (serial peripheral interface (SPI) invalid read and write, cyclic redundancy check (CRC), busy stuck monitor, and reset detection)
Note that throughout the data sheet, multifunction pins, such as the RD/SCLK pin, are referred to either by the entire pin name or by a single function of the pin, for example, the SCLK pin, when only that function is relevant.
- Power line monitoring
- Protective relays
- Multiphase motor control
- Instrumentation and control systems
- Data acquisition systems
- Инженерные коммуникации
- Решения по обеспечению безопасности и защиты зданий
Precision High Voltage
The ADuM4221/ADuM4221-1/ADuM4221-2 are 4 A isolated, half bridge gate drivers that employ the Analog Devices, Inc., iCoupler® technology to provide independent and isolated high-side and low-side outputs. The ADuM4221/ADuM4221-1/ADuM4221-2 provide 5700 V rms isolation in an increased creepage wide body, 16-lead SOIC_IC. Combining high speed CMOS and monolithic transformer technology, these isolation components provide outstanding performance characteristics superior to the alternatives, such as the combination of pulse transformers and gate drivers.
The isolators operate with a logic input voltage ranging from 2.5 V to 6.5 V, providing compatibility with lower voltage systems. In comparison to gate drivers employing high voltage level translation methodologies, the ADuM4221/ADuM4221-1/ADuM4221-2 offer the benefit of true, galvanic isolation between the input and each output.
The ADuM4221/ADuM4221-1/ADuM4221-2 each have built in overlap protection and allow dead time adjustment. A single resistor between the dead time pin (DT) and the GND1 pin sets the dead time on the secondary side between the high-side and the low-side outputs.
An internal thermal shutdown (TSD) sets outputs low if the internal temperature on the ADuM4221/ADuM4221-1/ADuM4221-2 exceeds the TSD temperature. As a result, the ADuM4221/ADuM4221-1/ADuM4221-2 provide reliable control over the switching characteristics of the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT)/metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) configurations over a wide range of positive or negative switching voltages.
- Switching power supplies
- Isolated IGBT/MOSFET gate drives
- Industrial inverters
- Gallium nitride (GaN)/silicon carbide (SiC) compatible
1 Protected by U.S. Patents 5,952,849; 6,873,065; 7,075,239. Other patents pending.
Роль ADI в развитии 5G
The ADuM41371 is a single-channel gate driver specifically optimized for driving insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). Analog Devices, Inc., iCoupler® technology provides isolation between the input signal and the output gate drive.
The Analog Devices chip scale transformers also provide isolated communication of control information between the high voltage and low voltage domains of the chip. Information on the status of the chip can be read back from the dedicated fault outputs. The ADuM4137 provides isolated fault reporting for overcurrent events, remote temperature overheating events, undervoltage lockout (UVLO), and thermal shutdown (TSD)
Integrated onto the ADuM4137 is an overcurrent detection feature that protects the IGBT in case of overcurrent events. The split emitter overcurrent detection is coupled with a high speed, two-level turn off in case of faults.
The ADuM4137 provides a Miller clamp control signal for the external metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) to provide robust IGBT turn off with a single rail supply when the gate voltage drops below 2.0 V (typical) and above GND2. Operation with unipolar secondary supplies is possible, with or without the Miller clamp operation.
A low gate voltage detection circuit can trigger a fault if the gate voltage does not go above the internal threshold (VVL) within the time allowed from turn on (tDVL). This circuit allows detection of IGBT device failures that exhibit gate shorts or other causes of weak drive.
The secondary falling UVLO is set to 11.24 V (typical) for common IGBT two-level plateau voltage levels.
The ADuM4137 provides for in field programming of temperature. Two temperature sensor pins allow isolated monitoring of system temperatures at the IGBTs, sensing diode gains and offsets by means of a serial port interface (SPI) bus on the primary side of the device. Values are stored on an EEPROM located on the secondary side. Additionally, programming is available for specific voltage offsets, temperature sensing reporting frequencies, and important delays.
The ASC pin on the secondary side on the ADuM4137 allows the driver to be switched on from the secondary side if no faults are present.
- MOSFET/IGBT gate drivers
- Photovoltaic (PV) inverters
- Motor drives
- Power supplies
1 Protected by U.S. Patents 5,952,849; 6,873,065; and 7,075,329. Other patents pending.
Testing and evaluating power systems in industrial and communications settings often requires multiple voltage and current measurements. Individual supplies may be referenced to different grounds, have either positive or negative polarity, or may be floating with no defined relationship to other power domains. Such scenarios necessitate either individual floating multimeters, or multichannel meters with per-channel isolation, which are physically cumbersome and expensive.
The circuit shown in Figure 1 is a complete, isolated current and voltage measurement system for industrial, telecommunications, instrumentation, and automated test equipment (ATE) applications. The system is galvanically isolated and will tolerate up to +/-250 V between the host controller and measurement grounds. The isolation design includes both digital data and power domain signals; no additional power source is required from the circuit being measured.
The current input range is +/-10 A and the voltage input range is selectable from 16 V to 80 V, with several ranges between these values. Both voltage and current inputs feature 16-bit resolution with adjustable output data rate and signal bandwidth, including modes that reject both 50 Hz and 60 Hz line noise.
The circuit is compatible with Arduino form-factor platform boards, and supports logic voltages from 1.8 V to 5 V. When paired with the open-source firmware example, application software can easily communicate with the reference design over the Linux Industrial Input/Output (IIO) framework using the libiio library, which includes bindings for C, C#, MATLAB, Python, and LabVIEW.