AN-2064: ADF7030-1 Receiver Desense Avoidance Algorithm

INTRODUCTION

Integrated system on chip (SoC) transceivers always exhibit spurious phenomena due to finite isolation between clock sources and sensitive analog and RF circuitry. These spurious phenomena may cause degraded sensitivity (desense) when the transceiver is operating in receive mode on specific channels. The traditional approach to addressing desense is to avoid these degraded channels by blacklisting them from the channel plan. However, reducing the number of channels may reduce the network capacity and, in frequency hopping applications, the ability of the network to avoid interference.

This application note describes a simple software algorithm for the ADF7030-1 that robustly mitigates against desense caused by certain spurious phenomena. This software algorithm avoids the need to blacklist channels and therefore allows more usage of the allowed spectrum.


ADF7030-1


If the ADF7030-1 receiver must operate in a channelized system over wide frequency bands such as 902 MHz to 928 MHz, 863 MHz to 876 MHz, or 450 MHz to 470 MHz, a small number of specific frequencies exhibit desense due to spurious phenomena.

In general, the cause of the sensitivity degradation is attributed to the following spurious phenomena:

  • A raw harmonic of a clock source falls within the bandwidth of the receiver.
  • A harmonic of an internal clock mixes with a higher order harmonic of the local oscillator (LO) and falls within the bandwidth of the receiver at baseband.

The software algorithm requires the host to modify certain receiver settings before using one of the channel frequencies exhibiting an issue with desense. The modified receiver settings make use of several on-chip features to move the source of the interference outside the bandwidth of the receiver, thereby allowing the ADF7030-1 receiver to reach the full sensitivity potential on that channel.

REGISTER SETTINGS

The PROFILE_RADIO_DIG_RX_CFG and PROFILE_RADIO_AFC_CFG2 registers contain the receiver settings that must be modified as part of the software algorithm that runs on the host processor. Table 1 and Table 2 describe the bit fields in each of these registers. The software algorithm uses these bit fields.


RECEIVER CONFIGURATION REGISTER


Address: 0x20000300, Reset: 0x00000000, Name: PROFILE_RADIO_DIG_RX_CFG

Table 1. Bit Descriptions for PROFILE_RADIO_DIG_RX_CFG
Bits Bit Name Description Reset Access
[31:30] DEMOD_SCALING Generated by the ADF7030-1 design center or provided by Analog Devices, Inc. 0x0 R/W
[29:27] Reserved Set to 0. 0x0 R/W
26 Invert 0: configure demodulation with dot product.
1: configure demodulation with cross product.
0x0 R/W
[25:22] ADC_ANALOG_CLK_DIVIDE Divide down ratio of Σ-Δ analog-to-digital converter (ADC) clock relative to the master clock rate. 0x0 R/W
[21:18] DECIMATE_8XIF_CLK_DIVIDE Divide down ratio of DECIMATE_8XIF_CLK relative to the master clock. 0x0 R/W
17 LOW_SIDE Select high sided or low sided injection.
0: high sided injection.
1: low sided injection.
0x0 R/W
[16:13] DEMOD_CORE_CLK_DIVIDE Divide down ratio of the demodulation core clock relative to the master clock. 0x0 R/W
12 DEMOD_PRODUCT_SEL Dot/cross product select. 0x0 R/W
[11:8] DEMOD_POST_DEMOD_FILTER_BW Generated by the ADF7030-1 design center or provided by Analog Devices. 0x0 R/W
[7:0] DEMOD_DISC_BW Receiver discriminator bandwidth. 0x0 R/W

AUTOMATIC FREQUENCY CONTROL (AFC) CONFIGURATION REGISTER 2


Address: 0x20000320, Reset: 0x00000003, Name: PROFILE_RADIO_AFC_CFG2

Table 2. Bit Descriptions for PROFILE_RADIO_AFC_CFG2
Bits Bit Name Description Reset Access
[31:30] Reserved Reserved. 0x0 R
29 AFC_PRODUCT_SEL Generated by the ADF7030-1 design center or provided by Analog Devices. 0x0 R/W
28 AFC_INVERT AFC invert. 0x0 R/W
[27:22] AFC_BW AFC measurement bandwidth (BW). 0x0 R/W
[21:19] AFC_SAMPLE_RATE Generated by the ADF7030-1 design center or provided by Analog Devices. 0x0 R/W
[18:3] AFC_INITIAL_CONDITION Generated by the ADF7030-1 design center or provided by Analog Devices. 0x0 R/W
[2:0] AFC_MODE Generated by the ADF7030-1 design center or provided by Analog Devices. 0x3 R/W

DESENSE FREQUENCIES ACROSS THE FCC PART 15 BAND—902 MHz TO 928 MHz


USE CASES


Table 3 describes the seven use cases that are explored in this application note. The receiver and desense bandwidths are also included. The desense bandwidth is set to be 1.5 times the receiver bandwidth.

Table 3. Use Cases
Use Case Data Rate (kbps) Frequency Deviation (kHz) Maximum Frequency Error (ppm) Intermediate Frequency (kHz) Receiver Bandwidth (kHz) Desense Bandwidth (kHz)
UC10 10 5.0 10 81.25 20.0 30.0
UC12p5 12.5 50.0 10 180.55 135.42 203.13
UC25 25 6.3 10 103.17 77.38 116.07
UC50 50 25.0 10 135.42 101.57 152.35
UC100 100 25.0 13 180.55 135.42 203.13
UC150 150 37.5 25 270.83 203.12 304.68
UC300 300 75.0 10 406.25 395.00 592.50

CLASSIFICATION


Table 4 to Table 10 describe the channel frequencies for the seven use cases in the 902 MHz to 928 MHz band that typically exhibit receiver desense due to spurious phenomena. Each frequency is classified, and this classification is used in the software algorithm.

Table 4. Classification of Problem Frequencies for UC10 in the 902 MHz to 928 MHz Band
Frequency (MHz) Cause of Receiver Sensitivity Degradation Software Algorithm Able to Address Problem Classification for Software Algorithm
903.5 ADC clock harmonic Yes ADC_DESENSE_CHAN
910.0 Harmonic of 26 MHz crystal (XTAL) No Not applicable
916.5 ADC clock harmonic Yes ADC_DESENSE_CHAN
923.0 ADC clock harmonic Yes ADC_DESENSE_CHAN
Table 5. Classification of Problem Frequencies for UC12p5 in the 902 MHz to 928 MHz Band
Frequency (MHz) Cause of Receiver Sensitivity Degradation Software Algorithm Able to Address Problem Classification for Software Algorithm
903.5 ADC clock harmonic Yes ADC_DESENSE_CHAN
905.9 Mixing of clock and LO harmonics Yes CLOCK_LO_HARM_DESENSE_CHAN
910.0 Harmonic of 26 MHz XTAL No Not applicable
912.4 Mixing of clock and LO harmonics Yes CLOCK_LO_HARM_DESENSE_CHAN
916.5 ADC clock harmonic Yes ADC_DESENSE_CHAN
918.9 Mixing of clock and LO harmonics Yes CLOCK_LO_HARM_DESENSE_CHAN
923.0 ADC clock harmonic and demodulator clock harmonic Yes ADC_DESENSE_CHAN and DEMOD_DESENSE_CHAN
Table 6. Classification of Problem Frequencies for UC25 in the 902 MHz to 928 MHz Band
Frequency (MHz) Cause of Receiver Sensitivity Degradation Software Algorithm Able to Address Problem Classification for Software Algorithm
903.5 ADC clock harmonic Yes ADC_DESENSE_CHAN
905.8 Mixing of clock and LO harmonics Yes CLOCK_LO_HARM_DESENSE_CHAN
910.0 Harmonic of 26 MHz XTAL No Not applicable
912.3 Mixing of clock and LO harmonics Yes CLOCK_LO_HARM_DESENSE_CHAN
916.5 ADC clock harmonic Yes ADC_DESENSE_CHAN
918.8 Mixing of clock and LO harmonics Yes CLOCK_LO_HARM_DESENSE_CHAN
923.0 ADC clock harmonic and demodulator clock harmonic Yes ADC_DESENSE_CHAN and DEMOD_DESENSE_CHAN
925.3 Mixing of clock and LO harmonics Yes CLOCK_LO_HARM_DESENSE_CHAN
Table 7. Classification of Problem Frequencies for UC50 in the 902 MHz to 928 MHz Band
Frequency (MHz) Cause of Receiver Sensitivity Degradation Software Algorithm Able to Address Problem Classification for Software Algorithm
903.5 ADC clock harmonic Yes ADC_DESENSE_CHAN
910.0 Harmonic of 26 MHz XTAL No Not applicable
914.5 Mixing of clock and LO harmonics Yes CLOCK_LO_HARM_DESENSE_CHAN
916.5 ADC clock harmonic Yes ADC_DESENSE_CHAN
923.0 ADC clock harmonic and demodulator clock harmonic Yes ADC_DESENSE_CHAN and DEMOD_DESENSE_CHAN
927.5 Mixing of clock and LO harmonics Yes CLOCK_LO_HARM_DESENSE_CHAN
Table 8. Classification of Problem Frequencies for UC100 in the 902 MHz to 928 MHz Band
Frequency (MHz) Cause of Receiver Sensitivity Degradation Software Algorithm Able to Address Problem Classification for Software Algorithm
903.5 ADC clock harmonic Yes ADC_DESENSE_CHAN
905.9 Mixing of clock and LO harmonics Yes CLOCK_LO_HARM_DESENSE_CHAN
910.0 Harmonic of 26 MHz XTAL No Not applicable
916.5 ADC clock harmonic Yes ADC_DESENSE_CHAN
918.9 Mixing of clock and LO harmonics Yes CLOCK_LO_HARM_DESENSE_CHAN
923.0 ADC clock harmonic and demodulator clock harmonic Yes ADC_DESENSE_CHAN and DEMOD_DESENSE_CHAN
927.6 Mixing of clock and LO harmonics Yes CLOCK_LO_HARM_DESENSE_CHAN
Table 9. Classification of Problem Frequencies for UC150 in the 902 MHz to 928 MHz Band
Frequency (MHz) Cause of Receiver Sensitivity Degradation Software Algorithm Able to Address Problem Classification for Software Algorithm
903.5 ADC clock harmonic Yes ADC_DESENSE_CHAN
906.0 Mixing of clock and LO harmonics Yes CLOCK_LO_HARM_DESENSE_CHAN
910.0 Harmonic of 26 MHz XTAL No Not applicable
916.5 ADC clock harmonic Yes ADC_DESENSE_CHAN
923.0 ADC clock harmonic and demodulator clock harmonic Yes ADC_DESENSE_CHAN and DEMOD_DESENSE_CHAN
927.7 Mixing of clock and LO harmonics Yes CLOCK_LO_HARM_DESENSE_CHAN
Table 10. Classification of Problem Frequencies for UC300 in the 902 MHz to 928 MHz Band
Frequency (MHz) Cause of Receiver Sensitivity Degradation Software Algorithm Able to Address Problem Classification for Software Algorithm
903.5 ADC clock harmonic Yes ADC_DESENSE_CHAN
903.7 Mixing of clock and LO harmonics Yes CLOCK_LO_HARM_DESENSE_CHAN
910.0 Harmonic of 26 MHz XTAL No Not applicable
910.5 Mixing of clock and LO harmonics Yes CLOCK_LO_HARM_DESENSE_CHAN
916.5 ADC clock harmonic Yes ADC_DESENSE_CHAN
923.0 ADC clock harmonic and demodulator clock harmonic Yes ADC_DESENSE_CHAN and DEMOD_DESENSE_CHAN
923.5 Mixing of clock and LO harmonics Yes CLOCK_LO_HARM_DESENSE_CHAN
927.9 Mixing of clock and LO harmonics Yes CLOCK_LO_HARM_DESENSE_CHAN

HOST SOFTWARE ALGORITHM

With reference to Table 4 to Table 10, the following pseudo C code conceptually illustrates how a host can alter the ADF7030-1 radio profile based on the desired channel frequency for desense avoidance. Make these radio profile setting modifications in PHY_ON prior to issuing the CMD_PHY_RX command. There is no requirement to issue the CMD_CFG_DEV after modifying these settings.

AN-2064 Code Block 1

AN-2064 Code Block 2

AN-2064 Code Block 3

AN-2064 Code Block 4

AN-2064 Code Block 4

RESULTS FOR COMBINED TRANSMITTER/RECEIVER MATCH

The evaluation board used for this testing has a suboptimal RF match. Therefore, the baseline receive sensitivity is not representative of the best achievable performance.

Figure 1. Receiver Sensitivity (Measured at 5% Packet Error Rate (PER)) Without the Algorithm Applied (Blue) and with the Algorithm Applied (Red); Data Rate = 10 kbps, Modulation = GFSK, Frequency Deviation = 5 kHz, Combined Transmitter/Receiver Match

Figure 2. Receiver Sensitivity (Measured at 5% PER) Without the Algorithm Applied (Blue) and with the Algorithm Applied (Red); Data Rate = 12.5 kbps, Modulation = GFSK, Frequency Deviation = 50 kHz, Combined Transmitter/Receiver Match
Figure 3. Receiver Sensitivity (Measured at 5% PER) Without the Algorithm Applied (Blue) and with the Algorithm Applied (Red); Data Rate = 25 kbps, Modulation = GFSK, Frequency Deviation = 6.25 kHz, Combined Transmitter/Receiver Match
Figure 4. Receiver Sensitivity (Measured at 5% PER) Without the Algorithm Applied (Blue) and with the Algorithm Applied (Red); Data Rate = 50 kbps, Modulation = GFSK, Frequency Deviation = 25 kHz, Combined Transmitter/Receiver Match
Figure 5. Receiver Sensitivity (Measured at 5% PER) Without the Algorithm Applied (Blue) and with the Algorithm Applied (Red); Data Rate = 100 kbps, Modulation = GFSK, Frequency Deviation = 25 kHz, Combined Transmitter/Receiver Match
Figure 6. Receiver Sensitivity (Measured at 5% PER) Without the Algorithm Applied (Blue) and with the Algorithm Applied (Red); Data Rate = 150 kbps, Modulation = GFSK, Frequency Deviation = 37.5 kHz, Combined Transmitter/Receiver Match
Figure 7. Receiver Sensitivity (Measured at 5% PER) Without the Algorithm Applied (Blue) and with the Algorithm Applied (Red); Data Rate = 300 kbps, Modulation = GFSK, Frequency Deviation = 75 kHz, Combined Transmitter/Receiver Match

Об авторах

Edwin Umali

Edwin Umali

Edwin joined ADI in 2016 and has been supporting the RF ISM band transceivers ever since. Edwin has a doctoral degree from the University of Electro-Communications in Tokyo, Japan, majoring in wireless communications and signal processing.

Niall Kearney

Niall Kearney

Niall Kearney joined the RF Group in ADI Limerick after graduating from University College Dublin. He later worked for Motorola as an RF Designer, and in Freescale Semiconductor as an RF System Architect, on the design of 2G/3G/4G transceivers for cellular handsets. He re-joined ADI in 2009 working on IoT transceivers and has been part of the Integrated Precision Group since 2017. Niall also teaches a module on Frequency Generation as part of the MEngSc degree program in University College Cork.