Glossary of EE Terms


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  • Effective Number of Bits (ENOB)

    When operating with real-world signals, non-ideal behavior in the ADC or DAC degrades the device performance. This degradation can be modeled as a loss of resolution, and the ENOB specification describes the achievable performance that is realizable, regardless of the actual number of bits within the ADC or DAC. The ENOB can be calculated from the signal-to-noise and distortion ratio (SINAD) based on the equation:

  • EIN

    EIN stands for Equivalent Input Noise, the noise created by the microphone expressed as an external noise source placed at the microphone's input.

  • Electrochemical Gas Detection

    An electrochemical sensor is used to detect a specific type of gas. Examples are CO, CO2, Ammonia or Hydrogen Sulfide. These sensors produce a current proportional to the specific gas concentration.

  • Electromagnetic Balances

    A dual matching photodiode is used to sense a shift in the balance from center caused by the sample weight. The difference in the currents is used to electromagnetically adjust the balance back to center.

  • Electron Microscopes

    An electron microscope uses a beam of electrons to illuminate a specimen and produce a magnified image. An electron microscope (EM) has greater resolving power than a light-powered optical microscope because electrons have wavelengths about 100,000 times shorter than visible light (photons).

  • Encode Pulse Width (Duty Cycle)

    Pulse width high is the minimum amount of time that the ENCODE pulse should be left in logic "1" state to achieve rated performance; pulse width low is the minimum time ENCODE pulse should be left in low state. At a give clock rate, these specs define an acceptable Encode duty cycle.

  • ESD

    Electrostatic discharge is the transfer of an electrostatic charge between two objects. This is a very rapid event that happens when two objects of different potentials come into direct contact with each other. ESD is one of the most common causes of electronic equipment damage or malfunction. Walking or working on a grounded ESD mat drains the electrical charge before it damages any ESD sensitive devices. There are three types of static control mats that are classified by their surface resistivity range. Surface resistivity is express in ohms (Ω). It measures how much a surface resists draining a static charge. The lower the surface resistivity the faster and more effective the mats will dissipate the Electrostatic charge.

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