Galvanically Isolated, 2-Channel, 16-Bit, Simultaneous Sampling, Daisy-Chained Data Acquisition System
Figure 1. Galvanically Isolated, 2-Channel, Simultaneous Sampling, 16-Bit Analog-to-Digital Conversion System with Daisy Chain (Simplified Schematic: All Connections and Decoupling Not Shown)
The AD7685 is a 16-bit, charge redistribution successive approximation (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) that operates from a single VDD power supply from 2.3 V to 5.5 V. It contains a low power, high speed, 16-bit sampling ADC with no missing codes, no pipeline delay, an internal conversion clock, and a versatile serial interface port. The ADC also contains a low noise, wide bandwidth, short aperture delay, track-and-hold circuit. On the CNV rising edge, it samples an analog input (IN+) between 0 V to VREF with respect to the ground sense (IN−). The reference voltage, VREF, is applied externally and is set from 0.5 V to VDD. The circuit of Figure 1 uses a 4.5 V reference voltage.
Power dissipation of the AD7685 scales linearly with sampling rate. Power dissipation is 15 mW maximum for VDD = 5 V and a sampling rate of 250 kSPS. The AD7685 is housed in a 10-lead MSOP or a 10-lead QFN (LFCSP) with operation specified from −40°C to +85°C. The SPI-compatible serial interface also features the ability, using the SDI input, to either daisy chain several ADCs on a single 3-wire bus or provide an optional BUSY indicator. It is compatible with 1.8 V, 2.5 V, 3 V, or 5 V logic using the separate VIO supply pin.
The complete analog signal chain runs on a single 5 V supply.
The ADR391 low dropout 2.5 V reference and the U13 rail-torail
CMOS AD8615 op amp develop the 4.5 V reference voltage
for the ADCs. A 4.5 V reference gives 0.5 V headroom at the
output of U13 so that the op amp remains in the linear region
for nominal variations in the 5 V supply. The ADR391 2.5 V
output is amplified by the noise gain of U13, which is 1 + R4/R5.
For the R4 and R5 values chosen, the noise gain is 1.8, and the
reference voltage is 1.8 × 2.5 V = 4.5 V.
The U4 and U14 AD8615 op amps provide a signal gain of 0.225 (set by the ratio of R1 to R2 and R19 to R20), which reduces the amplitude of the 20 V p-p input signals to 4.5 V p-p at the inputs of the ADCs. A 2.25 V offset is required at the outputs of U4 and U14 for a 0 V input. This requires a commonmode voltage of 1.84 V at the noninverting input of U4 and U14. This voltage is developed by the resistor divider R3-R6.
The R-C network on the output of U4 and U14 (33 Ω, 2.7 nF) forms a single-pole noise filter with a bandwidth of 1.8 MHz.
The AD8615 is a CMOS rail-to-rail input and output, singlesupply
amplifier featuring very low offset voltage, wide signal
bandwidth, and low input voltage and current noise. The part
uses a patented DigiTrim® trimming technique that achieves
superior precision without laser trimming. The AD8615 is fully
specified to operate from 2.7 V to 5 V single supplies.
The combination of greater than 20 MHz bandwidth, low offset, low noise, and low input bias current makes this amplifier useful in a wide variety of applications. Filters, integrators, photodiode amplifiers, and high impedance sensors all benefit from the combination of performance features. AC applications benefit from the wide bandwidth and low distortion. The AD8615 offers the highest output drive capability of the DigiTrim family, which is excellent for audio line drivers and other low impedance applications.
Applications for the parts include portable and low powered instrumentation, audio amplification for portable devices, portable phone headsets, barcode scanners, and multipole filters. The ability to swing rail-to-rail at both the input and output enables designers to buffer CMOS ADCs, DACs, ASICs, and other wide output swing devices in single-supply systems.
The ADR391 micropower, low dropout voltage reference
provides a stable output voltage from a minimum supply of
300 mV above the output. Its advanced design eliminates the
need for external capacitors, which further reduces board space
and system cost. The combination of low power operation,
small size, and ease of use makes the ADR391 precision voltage
reference ideally suited for battery-operated applications. Using
patented temperature drift curvature correction techniques
from Analog Devices, the ADR391 reference achieves a low
9 ppm/°C of temperature drift in a TSOT package.
The ADuM1402 is a quad-channel digital isolator based on Analog Devices’ iCoupler® technology. Combining high speed CMOS and monolithic air core transformer technology, this isolation component provides outstanding performance characteristics superior to alternatives such as optocoupler devices.
By avoiding the use of LEDs and photodiodes, iCoupler devices remove the design difficulties commonly associated with optocouplers. The typical optocoupler concerns regarding uncertain current transfer ratios, nonlinear transfer functions, and temperature and lifetime effects are eliminated with the simple iCoupler digital interfaces and stable performance characteristics.
The need for external drivers and other discrete components is eliminated with these iCoupler products. Furthermore, iCoupler devices consume one-tenth to one-sixth of the power of optocouplers at comparable signal data rates.
The ADuM1402 isolators provides four independent isolation
channels with 2/2 directionality and multiple data rates up to
90 Mbps for the C grade (see the data sheet Ordering Guide).
All models operate with the supply voltage on either side
ranging from 2.7 V to 5.5 V, providing compatibility with lower voltage systems, as well as enabling a voltage translation
functionality across the isolation barrier. In addition, the
ADuM1402 provides low pulse width distortion (<2 ns) and
tight channel-to-channel matching (<2 ns). Unlike other
optocoupler alternatives, the ADuM1402 isolators have a
patented refresh feature that ensures dc correctness in the
absence of input logic transitions and when power is not applied
to one of the supplies.
Figure 1 shows how the AD7685’s are daisy-chained to reduce the number of signals requiring isolation. Note that the RSCLK and RFS are readbacks of the AD7685’s serial clock (SCK) and serial frame sync (CNV), respectively. These readback signals need to have a very short skew with respect to the DATA signal. This skew is the channel-to-channel matching propagation delay of the digital isolator (tPSKCD), which is less than 2 ns for the ADuM1402C. This allows running the serial interface at the maximum speed of the digital isolator (90 Mbps for the ADuM1402C), which corresponds to a maximum serial clock frequency of 90 MHz. This might have been otherwise limited by the cascade of the propagation delays of the digital isolators if the delays were too long. In the circuit, the TSCLK frequency is 30 MHz for a sampling frequency of 250 kSPS.
Two ±10 V signals 90° out of phase were applied to the two channels (AIN1 and AIN2) of the EVAL-CN0194-SDPZ board. The results of their conversion are seen in Figure 2, which was obtained using the supplied evaluation software. The supplied evaluation software can also be used to view FFT data (Figure 3) as well as a histogram for codes at a fixed dc level (Figure 4).
The performance of this or any high speed circuit is highly dependent on proper PCB layout. This includes, but is not limited to, power supply bypassing, controlled impedance lines (where required), component placement, signal routing, and power and ground planes. (See MT-031 Tutorial, MT-101 Tutorial, and the article, A Practical Guide to High-Speed Printed-Circuit-Board Layout, for more detailed information regarding PCB layout.)
A complete design support package for this circuit note can be
found at www.analog.com/CN0194-DesignSupport.
Figure 2. 15,000 Samples of Two Separate ±10V Input Signals (AIN1,AIN2), 90° Out of Phase, Applied to AIN1 and AIN2 Sampled at 250 kSPS on the EVAL-CN0194-SDPZ Board in Daisy Chain Mode
Figure 3. FFT with a Kaiser Window (Parameter = 20), 20 kHz Input, 250 kSPS Sampling Rate
Figure 4. Histogram of a DC Input at the Code Center for 390,000 Samples
|AD8615||Precision 20 MHz CMOS Single RRIO Operational Amplifier
|ADR391||2.5V Micropower, Low Noise Precision Voltage Reference with Shutdown||
|ADUM1402||Quad-Channel Digital Isolator (2/2 Channel Directionality)||
|AD7685||16-Bit, 250 kSPS PulSAR® ADC in MSOP/QFN||