This circuit provides the capability of monitoring current in either direction through the sense resistor. To allow negative outputs to represent charging current, VEE is connected to a small negative supply. In single-supply operation (VEE at ground), the output range may be offset upwards by applying a positive reference level to VBIAS (1.25V for example). C3 may be used to form a filter in conjunction with the output resistance (ROUT) of the part. This solution offers excellent precision (very low VOS) and a fixed nominal gain of 8.