能源动力系统活动概述

ADI公司提供一个模拟电路设计课程方案的在线程序库,以供工程设计专业的教授参考,帮助其完成课程定制。
目标:

围绕能源与电力系统(EPS)的硬件模块为中心实验室活动的目的是探讨各种相关的生成,存储和能量和功率控制电气工程概念。

其中有些实验是最好的构建首先在将其纳入到主系统板之前,焊料少面包板。有些事情,比如电动机和发电机只有正常工作时牢固地附着到电路板。许多基本组件可以在模拟部件工具包中找到,但额外数量的某些部分将需要超出了工具包。一个完整的列表本文档后面包含在内。

电气工程概念:


1. 电子元件的特性

    I. 一,二极管的I / V特性
        a. 一个。传统的Si二极管
        b. 湾肖特基势垒二极管
        c.角齐纳(雪崩)击穿二极管
        d .Ð。发光二极管(LED)
            α. LED作为一个光电二极管(微型太阳能电池)
    II. NPN和PNP晶体管BJT
        a. 一个。 I / V特性
        b .湾电流增益
        c. 角应用作为一个放大器
        d. 应用程序作为一个开关
2. 电压参考电路
    I. 齐纳二极管
    II. 邦隙基准
3. 光伏太阳能电池
    I. 开路电压
    II. 短路电流
    III. 输出电流与输出电压特性
    IV. 输出电压和电流的最大功率
    V. 控制电路
        a. 一个。线性稳压器(LDO电路)
        b. 湾开关模式稳压器,降压,升压或降压 - 升压型
4. 可充电电池的特性(镍镉/镍氢电池)
    I. 内部电阻与荷电状态
    II. 开路电压与充电状态
    III. 最佳的充电/放电速率
5. 直流电动机5。表征
    I. 直流电阻,能量散失热量(测量上升情况下的温度)
    II. 空载转速与电压和电流
    III. 堵转电流
6. 直流发电机的特性(用直流电动机作为发电机)
    I. 输出电压和电流与轴转速
    II. 结合电动机/发电机组,包括直流电阻损耗的效率
    III. 外壳温度上升与负载生成器
7. DC电机驱动器和控制电路
    I. 线性驱动器
    II. 开关模式驱动器,脉冲宽度调制(PWM)
    III. 驱动器效率
8. Electrical measurement techniques
    I. Analog multiplexing
    II. Voltage divider
    III. Current sense (shunt resistor)
        a. Difference amplifier circuit
    IV. Calibration to correct for errors
    V. Tachometers, measuring rotational speed
        a. Hall Effect sensors
        b. Optical sensors
        c. Strobe
        d. Frequency-to-voltage circuits
    VI. Temperature sensing
9. Control systems
    I. Negative feedback
    II. Stability
    III. Frequency compensation
    IV. Settling time, damping factor

 

Energy and Power Systems (EPS) Hardware Module:


The hardware module consists of a roughly 3.5” X 4” circuit board that provides space for a small mechanically interconnected motor-generator set that can serve as a model for a power plant that utilizes expendable fuels. A port for connecting a small solar panel is provided to model an intermittent renewable energy source. Six switchable LEDs serve as a variable load to the simulated power system.

It models power generation, and distribution in a simulated real-life setting. Analog Discovery along with the Waveforms software and custom software is used to measure the operating parameters and control the system as the power produced from the motor-generator and solar panel change and as the load changes. A rechargeable battery is connected to store excess power when generation is larger than the load and release power when the load demand is greater than the generation capacity. This is measured through things such as the power produced and consumed, as well as an RPM measurement from the motor-generator.

Figure 1 is the schematic of the system board. Figure 2 shows a completed board connected to the Discovery module, a 9V 6 cell AA battery holder (to power the DC motor), a small solar array and a rechargeable NiCd battery pack. A Hall effect sensor and magnet mounted on the motor-generator shaft measures the RPM.

Energy-power-systems-hardware-module-block-diagram

Figure 1:  Energy and Power Systems (EPS) Hardware Module schematic 

 

energy-power-systems-EPS-hardware-photo

Figure 2:  Energy and Power Systems (EPS) Hardware with solar panel and battery 


Hardware User's Guide

EPS Hardware User's Guide


PC Board design files: 

Eagle CAD and Gerber files schematic and board files


Parts List:

 
Table 1 lists the required parts to build out the EPS system board. Suggested sources with part numbers for the various parts are included. Table 2 lists the generic passive devices needed.

 

 Description  Quantity Supplier  Part Number  Unit Cost   Total Cost
9V DC motor  2 Jameco 232144 $2.95 $5.90
Neodymium Ring Magnet, diametrically magnetized  1 K&J Magnetics R424DIA $0.61 $0.61
Solar panel, 60X60X2MM  2 Jameco 1928142 $7.95  $15.90
3.6 V Rechargeable battery  1  Sears  SPM7155360313 $0.99 $0.99
2N3904 NPN transistor  6 Jameco  38360 $0.05 $0.50
TIP32 PNP transistor  1 Jameco 181841 $0.35 $0.35
1N5230BTR 4.7V 0.5W Zener Diode  1 Jameco 179039 $0.07 $0.07
1N5817 Schottky diode  2 Jameco 177949 $0.14 $0.28
5 mm LED, various colors  6 Jameco 333973 $0.12 $0.72
Dual opamp, AD822 or similar  3 ADI AD822ANZ    
Dual 4:1 analog Mux, ADG609  1 ADI ADG609BNZ    
Hall effect sensor  1 Jameco 1915835 $1.19 $1.19
30 pin right angle female header  1 Digikey S5568-ND $2.60 $2.60
8 position DIP switch  1  Jameco 38842 $0.79 $0.79
2 pin male headers  11 Jameco 108338 $0.25 $2.75
SPDT slide switch (9V power)  1 DigiKey 679-1849-ND $0.59 $0.59
SPDT slide switch (feedback)
 1 Digikey
679-1848-ND
$0.60

$0.60

 

Table 1

 

 

Resistors
Value
Quantity
mcmelectronics.com
20 pack 5%
1/4 W 1.5 KΩ  5    
1/8 or 1/4 W 100 Ω  7 373-100

$0.49 

1/8 or 1/4 W 1 KΩ  1 373-1K $0.49
1/8 or 1/4 W 1.5 KΩ  1 373-1.5K $0.49
1/8 or 1/4 W 5.6 KΩ  6 373-5.6K $0.49
1/8 or 1/4 W 10 KΩ  10 373-10K $0.49
1/8 or 1/4 W 33 KΩ  10 373-33K $0.49
1/8 or 1/4 W 47 KΩ  6 373-47K $0.49
1/8 or 1/4 W 220 KΩ  10 373-220K $0.49
Potentiometer Value Quantity DigiKey part #  
  50KΩ  1 3386P-503TLF-ND $2.30
Capacitors Value Quantity    
  0.01 uF  2    
  0.1 uF  3    
  1.0 uF  2    
  10.0 uF  1    

 

Table 2

 

Most suppliers sell passive components like resistors in large minimum quantities of 100 or 200 pieces at very low effective unit prices. Radio Shack offers resistors in quantities of 5 but at a much higher unit cost. MCMElectronics.com offers 1/8 watt resistors in quantities of 20 at reasonable cost as listed in table 2. DigiKey will sell any quantity down to single resistors at $0.10 each for 1/6 watt 5% carbon film types. Electronix Express sells 1/4 watt resistors in minimum quantities of 10 at $0.06 each.

 

Notes on alternate sources:


No one supplier can provide the complete list of components. Prices can vary widely from supplier to supplier for essentially the same component. It's a matter of how much time one wishes to put into shopping around to find the best prices for each major component.  

 

The same 60×60 mm 4.5 Volt solar panels are available from Electronic Goldmine, part number G16394, for $3.50 each which is less than half the Jameco price. Tiger Direct offers the OSEPP SC10072 Monocrystalline Solar Cell - Barrel Plug Termination, 100mA ISC, 7.2 VOC. This one comes prewired with a power plug. A matching jack would be needed to connect the panel to your experiments. 

 

The same 9V DC motors are available from DigiKey, part number P14356-ND, for $3.53 each. The 3.6V rechargeable NiCd or NiMH three cell batteries are commonly used in cordless telephone handsets and can be sourced from many places such as this one from Sears: Item# SPM7155360313, OEM Cordless Phone Battery, 3.6V / 800mAh, Uniden BT-446.  

 
Supplier web site links: 


http://www.analog.com/
http://www.jameco.com/
http://www.bgmicro.com/
http://www.goldmine-elec-products.com/
http://www.kjmagnetics.com/
http://www.digikey.com/
http://www.mcmelectronics.com/
http://www.tigerdirect.com/
http://www.elexp.com/
http://www.radioshack.com/

 

Construction directions: 


To assemble the Power and Energy Systems PC board, you need certain hand tools such as a wire cutter, wire stripper, long nose pliers, and a soldering iron. Use caution with the soldering iron, as it get very hot! When soldering parts onto a circuit board, it is best to start with the shortest pieces and work your way up to the taller ones. The reason is that when you turn the board over to solder, the shorter pieces will not be held in by the table if taller pieces are already placed on the board. Often it is helpful to use small pieces of masking tape to hold the smaller components in place while soldering. The following steps are ordered for ease of installation. 

 

Under construction:


DC Motors -The two mechanically coupled 9V DC motors comprise a motor/generator set. The first motor takes electrical energy from the battery and converts it into mechanical energy. This models the actual process whereby the mechanical force from an energy source such as wind, flowing water or a spinning a turbine from burning fuels is converted into a physical motion,. The second motor (GEN) is the generator that takes mechanical energy from the first motor and converts it back into electricity in our case.


Hall Effect Sensor - The Hall effect sensor measures how fast the motor is spinning (RPM) by detecting the magnet mounted on the shafts along with the heat shrink tubing connecting the motors. It is powered by the Discovery 5V power supply, and uses a pull-up resistor connected to the open drain output of the sensor to a generate a logic level detectable by a digital input. Digital input DI 15 then reads 5 V pulses using an edge count, which is converted into an RPM in the software program.


Energy Expenditure


The power provided by the mechanical and solar energy sources is combined and used to power up to six LEDs, representing any kind of load that might be used in a real-life power system (lights, air conditioners, etc.). The power must reach a certain threshold before the LEDs will turn on. LEDs-The LEDs provide the function of simulating a load. Lighting the LEDs is the ultimate purpose of the power system, and so it is essential that the proper power is applied to them. The LEDs operate at around 1.67 V, and will usually turn on when about 4.5 V is applied to the generator (may vary depending on efficiency of the motors, battery life, etc.). In the case of real-life loads powered by plants, there exists a variable demand for power. Since electrical energy cannot be stored, it must be continually generated to meet the demand, requiring some sort of control system.